Skip to: 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 home

1*1*1900 - England: Emma Goldman attends a Russian New Year party in London where she meets notable Russian revolutionary exiles, including L. B. Goldenberg & V. N. Cherkezov.

1*21*1900 - England: Emma Goldman travels to Glasgow, Dundee, & Edinburgh, Scotland to lecture. Today in Dundee she speaks on "Authority versus Liberty" & "The Aim of Humanity." In Edinburgh, she meets the anarchist Thomas Bell.

2*25*1900 - France: Emma Goldman scheduled to deliver her lecture "The Basis of Morality" in German. On Feb. 26, she is honored at a farewell concert & ball where she speaks about the striking Bohemian miners; other speakers include fellow anarchists Peter Kropotkin & Louise Michel.

4*4*1900 - Prince of Wales escapes anarchist assassination attempt in Belgium

6*14*1900 - French intelligence notes presence of Hippolyte Havel & Emma Goldman at a women's congress in Paris

7*16*1900 - The tunnel being dug for Alexander Berkman's escape is discovered. Although prison officials cannot verify who is responsible, Berkman is placed in solitary confinement. Eric B. Morton, sick from the physical hardship of digging the tunnel, sails to France where he is nursed back to health by anarchist Emma Goldman.

7*29*1900 - King Umberto of Italy is assassinated by Gaetano Bresci, an Italian anarchist Emma Goldman had met in Paterson, N.J. This was in revenge for the army's crushing of the worker's insurrection in Milan, May 1998, which left hundreds of workers dead. The insolent Humbert had callously decorated the General Bava Beccaris (responsible for the dead in Milan).

4*7*1901 - Switzerland: Violent confrontations with the police & the army during demonstrations against the extradition of an Italian anarchist suspected of participation in the attack on King Umberto I on July 29, 1900.

9*6*1901 - US Emperor William McKinley is purported to have been shot by professed anarchist Leon Czolgosz who previously had been repudiated by numerous anarchist groups

9*10*1901 - US: Emma Goldman arrested in alleged link to McKinley assassin.

9*24*1901 - Emma Goldman released from jail due to lack of evidence

1*27*1903 - US: Police arrest Emma Goldman & Max Baginski in New York City for being "suspicious persons"; released after questioning. Why upstanding anarchists would be considered "suspicious" is beyond us. What is left to suspect?

3*5*1903 - Paul Roussenq (the "anarchist convict") throws a crouton at the head prosecutor during a trial, & this dastardly terrorist act leads to his being sent the disciplinary battalions of Biribi in Africa for 5 years...& this in turn spirals ridiculously out of control. Only after a press campaign, publication of Albert Londres' book on the prisons, & mobilization of the " S.R.I. " (International Red Help) on his behalf does Roussenq finally get released from prison, in 1932!

6*21*1903 - England: In London, anarchists organize a massive demonstration among the Jewish labor movement to protest the Russian pogrom in Kishineff.

10*23*1903 - US: First attempt to test anti-anarchist immigration act: At an event at Murray Hill Lyceum, where Emma Goldman is scheduled to speak, English anarchist John Turner is arrested & charged with promoting anarchism & violating alien labor laws. Turner was "detained" on Ellis Island until his deportation, with the words "Let freedom ring" burning in his ears.

1*3*1904 - US: During this month Emma Goldman, on behalf of the Free Speech League, undertakes a brief lecture tour to gain support for English anarchist John Turner; speaks before garment workers in Rochester & miners in Pennsylvania.

4*7*1904 - Spain: King Alfonso of Spain escapes anarchist assassination attempt

5*16*1904 - US Supreme Court rules on the John Turner case (Turner v. Williams, 194 U.S. 279) that Congress has unlimited power to exclude aliens & deport those who have entered in violation of the laws, including philosophical anarchists. Argued April 6 & 7, 1904. Decided May 16, 1904.

9*11*1904 - US: One of the largest reported New York City anarchist meetings in support of the Russian anarchist movement.

1*9*1905 - France: Popular French anarchist Louise Michel dies. A leader in the Paris Commune & co-founder of the Women's Battalion. Founder of the journal "Le libertaire" with Sebastian Faure. Her funeral was a huge occasion, with red flags & 2,000 mourners. Memorial services were held for her throughout France, & in London.

1*22*1905 - Russia: Bloody Sunday, massacre of demonstrators in St. Petersburg: Troops open fire on 100,000 workers, women & children, leaving over 1,000 demonstrators dead & 3,000 wounded. It is the beginning of the first Russian Revolution. Tomorrow, the anarchist Voline forms part of the first Soviet, created to assist the victims of repression.

5*31*1905 - France: In Paris a bomb is tossed into a procession headed by French President Loubet & the king of Spain, Alphonse XIII. They were not hurt, but several people were wounded. The Spanish anarchist Alexander Farras (or Avino) was purported to be responsible, but never caught. Four anarchists, including Charles Malato, were arrested November 27, tried & acquitted of complicity in the attack.

3*1*1906 - US: Emma Goldman publishes the first issue of her anarchist paper, Mother Earth.

10830*1906 - US: Scheduled to speak at a meeting to protest the Oct. 27 arrests of several anarchists for debating in "Land of Free Speech" whether Czolgosz was an anarchist, Emma Goldman is arrested for articles published in Mother Earth & for inciting to riot. Nine others also arrested. Goldman also devoted the October issue of Mother Earth to the commemoration of the fifth anniversary of Leon Czolgosz's death, despite the objection of many of her political associates. Released tomorrow on $1,000 bail, a NY City grand jury will dismiss the case on January 9.

11*2*1906 - Emma Goldman pleads not guilty to criminal anarchy charges before the NY City magistrate.

3*11*1907 - Bulgarian Premier Nicolas Petkov is slain by an anarchist

4*26*1908 - US: Emma Goldman ends her San Francisco lecture series with a speech on patriotism. In attendance is U.S. soldier William Buwalda, stationed at the Presidio, who is witnessed shaking hands with Goldman following her speech. Buwalda is subsequently court-martialed for this action.

12*1*1908 - Seattle police take Emma Goldman into custody after the lock on a closed hall is broken to allow Goldman entry to speak; released when she promises to leave the city.

10*13*1909 - Francisco Ferrer, founder of the "Modern School" movement, anarchist, murdered in Spain by the Catholic Monarchists.

10*13*1909 - In capitals throughout Europe demonstrations are held protesting the execution of Francisco Ferrer. Violent confrontations between protestors & the police occur in Paris, where over 500,000 people turned out. In Argentina, a meeting improvised by the F.O.R.A. (the anarchist Federation Obrera Regional Argentina) brings out 20,000 workers & results in a General Strike which begins tomorrow & lasts until October 17.

11*14*1909 - Argentina: Simon Radowitzky, legendary "martir de Ushuaia", a young Polish anarchist, kills police chief Ramon Falcon with a bomb in Buenos Aires. Falcon had ruthlessly suppressed a renters strike & the workers' May Day celebrations.

12*6*1909 - Moishe Tokar, a young Russian Jewish anarchist & exiled member of Judith Goodman's group in London before slipping back into Russia, attempts to assassinate Hershelman, the hated military commander of the Vilna Fortress.


1*13*1910 - Russia: Moishe Tokar, a young Russian Jewish anarchist who attempted to assassinate Hershelman, the hated military commander of the Vilna Fortress, is sentenced to death.

2*26*1910 - US: Emma Goldman speaks in Buffalo, late this month, despite residues of Czolgosz-inspired apprehension & disapproval of anarchism. Also holds three meetings in Rochester.

3*11*1910 - US: Emma Goldman speaks on "The General Strike [of Philadelphia]" in Pittsburgh. The "free" press does not announce her talks in fear that she will prompt a riot.

3*26*1910 - US: Amendment to the Immigration Act of 1907 is passed, forbidding entrance to the United States of criminals, paupers, anarchists, & persons carrying diseases.

4*11*1910 - US: Emma Goldman's lectures in early April in Denver, Colorado, are well attended. But Goldman & Dr. Ben Reitman are arrested in Cheyenne, Wyoming, while conducting an open-air meeting. The arrests spur further interest in Goldman.

5*24*1910 - US: Emma Goldman begins lecture tour, visits San Diego, Portland, Seattle, & Spokane.

5*31*1910 - US: Car in which Emma Goldman & Reitman are riding is struck by a freight train in Spokane, Washington. Goldman thrown from car & badly bruised. The anarchist continues her speaking engagements, in Butte, Bismarck, & Fargo; travels through Milwaukee & Chicago.

6*13*1910 - France: In Paris, confrontations take place at Faubourg Saint-Anthony between cabinetmakers & police. The anarchist Henri Cler is wounded & dies. Cler's funeral at the Pantin cemetery draws tens of thousands of people, & is the scene of new police violence.

10*1*1910 - US: Twenty-one killed when the Los Angeles Times building is dynamited while embroiled in labor strife. McNamara arrested. Anarchist involvement immediately suspected.

10*19*1910 - France: Death of Luigi Lucheni, found hung in his cell. Anarchist advocate of "propaganda by the deed," he killed the impératrice Elisabeth of Austria, (September 10, 1878) & got, at age 25, life in prison.

11*1*1910 - At a public meeting in NY City, anarchists Dr. Ben Reitman & Emma Goldman question Anthony Comstock about his promotion of laws denying the use of mails for "obscene" materials (birth control information was classified "obscene").

11*22*1910 - US: Police authorities deny the anarchist-feminist Emma Goldman, during November-December lectures, the right to speak in Washington, D.C., & Indianapolis. She miraculously escapes police interference in Baltimore where she presents five lectures.

11*25*1910 - ules Durand, French anarchist & revolutionary trade unionist, is sentenced to death in Le Havre, a victim of corrupt witnesses & smears by the local press. In a reopening of his case 15 June 1918 he will be found totally innocent. Unfortunately, by this time he had gone insane from being kept subdued in a strait jacket for 40 days, & Jules Durand spends the rest of his life in an asylum.

1*3*1911 - England: Sidney Street Siege, East London: three anarchists suspected of killing three cops three weeks earlier shoot it out with over a thousand troops, including Scots Guards from the Tower of London & armed police.

2*5*1911 - Mexico: Guadalupe is captured by the revolutionary anarchist forces of Ricardo Flores Magon's Liberal Party.

3*6*1911 - US: Emma Goldman -- "the most dangerous woman in America" -- lectures in Belleville, Ill., Milwaukee, & Madison, March 6-12.

3*13*1911 - Ricardo Flores Magón appeals to Emma Goldman for support of the revolutionary movement in Mexico.

5*1*1911 - Climax of land revolt in Baja California led by the Partido Liberal Mexicano; Porfirio Diaz signs a peace treaty with Francisco Madero in Mexico.

5*8*1911 - Mexico: Tijuana is captured by the anarchist Magonistes of the Mexican Liberal Party. Lower California is now almost entirely in their hands. The Magonistes encouraged the people to take collective possession of the lands, to create co-operatives & refuse the establishment of any new government.

10*30*1911 - Italy: Augusto Masetti, a soldier in the Bologna barracks, shouting "Anarchy Lives!" as he floors the gas pedal, runs down Colonel Stroppa with a car as Stroppa exhorts his soldiers to depart for Libya. Stroppa is injured, & Masetti was committed to an asylum (to avoid trying him openly in court).

3*14*1912 - Italy: Antonio d' Alba shoots at Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader King Victor-Emmanuel III who was attending a mass funeral for Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Humbert I (killed on July 29, 1900 by Gaetano Bresci). The young anarchist d' Alba is sentenced to forced labor.

5*30*1912 - Two companies of Marines rushed to Nicaragua to "protect U.S. interests"

6*9*1912 - Emma Goldman's lecture series (June 9-20) in Seattle, Washington, threatened by US military veterans who, always ready to do combat to protect freedom, protest the her right to speak. The Mayor, slightly more liberal, orders a large police contingent to monitor, rather than bar, her lectures. Goldman speaks in public in defiance of an anonymous death threat; no attempts made on her life.

6*22*1912 - Mexico: A group formed by the Colombian anarchist Juan Francisco Moncaleano, takes the name of "Grupo Luz" (Light) & creates a school based on the Modern School model of the Spaniard, Francisco Ferrer, in Mexico City.

8*5*1912 - In Mexico, the Colombian anarchist Juan Francisco Moncaleano today comes out in support of Ricardo Florès Magon (imprisoned), by with an article in the libertarian newspaper " Luz!". For this, amonth from now he is expelled from the country by Francisco Madero.

5*19*1913 - US: Emma Goldman accompanies Dr. Ben Reitman, obsessed with returning to San Diego, to the place of his abduction by vigilantes the previous year.

5*20*1913 - US: Emma Goldman & Dr. Ben Reitman arrested on arrival in that bastion of "free speech," San Diego, California; vigilantes surround the police station. Police order Goldman & Reitman to board the afternoon train back to Los Angeles.

6*7*1914 - Italy: At the end of meeting where Errico Malatesta appears in Ancone, the police open fire, killing three people & wounds about 15.

6*28*1914 - Austria's Archduke Ferdinand assassinate, purportedly by the Serbian anarchist Gavrilo Princip, touching off World War I. But that was just an excuse...the bloodbath had been coming for many years as various nation-states jockeyed for power & wealth.

7*4*1914 - US: "Accidental" bomb explosion at Lexington Avenue in New York City kills four people, including Arthur Caron, Carl Hansen, & Charles Berg, anarchists who knew Alexander Berkman from the protests at John D. Rockefeller's estate in Tarrytown, N.Y.

7*11*1914 - US: A NY City rally & public funeral as 6,000 mourn the deaths of those killed in the Lexington Avenue explosion.

12*6*1914 - Mexico: The troops of Pancho Villa & the anarchist Emiliano Zapata enter Mexico City.

1*24*1915 - Italy: In Pisa, the Italian anarchists, faithful to their convictions, declare themselves against the war. Errico Malatesta earlier vigorously protested, in the English newspaper "Freedom", December 1914, against the interventionist's "Manifesto of the 16" issued by Kropotkin & Jean Grave.

2*15*1915 - Publication of "Manifesto Against the War", signed by 35 anarchists, including Errico Malatesta, Domela Nieuwenhuis, Louis Lecoin, Alexander Berkman, Emma Goldman, Alexander Schapiro, etc. A number of others had issued a manifesto, the "Manifeste des Seize" (Manifesto of the Sixteen) in support of the allies.

3*2*1915 - US: Frank Abarno & Carmine Carbone, members of the Italian anarchist Gruppo Gaetano Bresci, are arrested.

3*3*1915 - US: During this month Emma Goldman helps raise money for the defense fund of Frank Abarno & Carmine Carbone, members of the Italian anarchist Gruppo Gaetano Bresci, arrested on March 2 for conspiracy to bomb St. Patrick's Cathedral. On April 9, Abarno & Carbone are convicted & sentenced to six to twelve years in prison.

5*2*1915 - England: This month the "International Anarchist Manifesto on the War" issued from London; Emma Goldman is among over thirty anarchist signatories from the United States, Italy, France, Spain, the Netherlands, & Russia.

9*16*1915 - US: Emma Goldman scheduled to speak at meeting to rally support for David Caplan & Matthew Schmidt prior to the opening of their trials.

2*18*1916 - US: The anarchist brothers Enrique & Ricardo Flora Magon arrested at their Community Farm near Los Angeles, California. Enrique is beat by the police & hospitalized. The Magon brothers are charged with mailing articles inciting "murder, arson & treason," & go on trial May 21 & are both convicted & given prison sentences & fines.

5*21*1916 - US: The brothers Enrique & Ricardo Flora Magon go on trial. Arrested at their Community Farm near Los Angeles, California. Enrique was beat by police & hospitalized. The anarchist Magon brothers are said to have mailed articles inciting "murder, arson & treason".

7*22*1916 - Bomb explodes during a "Preparedness Day" parade in San Francisco, killing 10 & injuring 40. Tom Mooney, a labor organizer, & Warren K. Billings, a shoe worker, were framed & convicted by business & government interests (both pardoned by Roosevelt in 1939).

11*14*1916 - US: The anarchist Margaret Sanger arrested for operating a birth control clinic.

6*15*1917 - Emma Goldman & Alexander Berkman arrested & charged with conspiring to "induce persons not to register" for World War I military service. Both were sent to prison, then deported & banned from the land of the free.

6*16*1917 - Emma Goldman & Alexander Berkman plead not guilty on conspiracy charges; bail set at $25,000 each. Emma Goldman disappointed by Ben Reitman's failure to return to New York to support their pending trial.

6*21*1917 - Emma Goldman freed on $25,000 bail for her anti-war agitation; the press spreads charges that the anarchist's bail was provided by the German Kaiser. Alexander Berkman will be released on bail June 25.

6*27*1917 - US: Emma Goldman & Alexander Berkman act as independent counsel in their conspiracy trial for anti-war activities; Goldman denies charge that she stated, "We believe in violence & we will use violence" at a May 18 meeting.

7*9*1917 - When Emma Goldman & Alexander Berkman, charged with conspiracy to defeat military registration under the conscription law, were sentenced today to serve two years in prison, to pay fines of $10,000 each, & to be probably deported to Russia at the expiration of their prison terms, US Marshal McCarthy said: "This marks the beginning of the end of Anarchism in New York."

7*9*1917 - Brazil: Antonio Martinez, shoe-maker & anarchist, killed by the São Paulo cops at a demonstration during a textile strike. His killing sets off a 3-day General Strike on the 13th.

7*13*1917 - Brazil: A 3-day General Strike erupts in São Paulo following the killing of the anarchist shoemaker, Antonio Martinez, three days ago.

9*5*1917 - US: Palmer raids. Federal agents attack Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) halls & offices in 48 cities across the nation

9*9*1917 - Anarchist Antonio Fornasier is killed by Milwaukee police after heckling a priest.

12*14*1917 - US: Police authorities prevent Emma Goldman & Alexander Berkman from speaking at a meeting at the Harlem River Casino in New York organized by labor for the San Francisco defense.

1*14*1918 - US: Anarchist/feminist Emma Goldman fined & sentenced to 2 years prison for obstruction of justice (opposing the draft). She will soon be deported from the Land of the Free.

1*14*1918 - US: Supreme Court upholds constitutionality of the selective service law, affirms all criminal charges arising from non-compliance with the draft.

1*28*1918 - Germany: General Strike in the large cities.

2*22*1918 - US: At the height of the Red Scare, the office of the "Cronaca Sovversiva", an anarchist newspaper both Sacco & Vanzetti had written for & donated money to, is raided. The names Sacco & Vanzetti are for the first time linked by officials to anarchist activities.

2*25*1918 - US: Newspapers report on government charges that Emma Goldman & Alexander Berkman had worked with German spies in foreign countries, an allegation based on correspondence from Indian nationalist Har Dayal to Berkman found among the papers seized from the Mother Earth office.

3*1*1918 - US: Emma Goldman receives visit from Prince Hopkins, who reports on the activities of the League for the Amnesty of Political Prisoners.

3*4*1918 - US: The Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice orders copies of all correspondence to & from Emma Goldman sent to its office in Washington, D.C.

3*7*1918 - US: Harry Weinberger submits motion to the US District Court, Southern District of New York, that the bail money provided for Emma Goldman & Alexander Berkman should not be used to pay their fines. Motion granted by Judge Augustus N. Hand on Mar. 11.

3*18*1918 - US: Mexican anarchist Ricardo Flores Magón is arrested for the final time on March 18, 1918 under the Espionage Act. He is charged with hindering the American war effort with his ideas, & imprisoned in the federal penitentiary of Leavenworth, causing outrage at the time among both Mexicans & even US liberals. Ricardo Flores Magon died in prison under highly suspicious circumstances, supposedly of a "heart attack" but at the hands of prison guards, according to Chicano inmates who rioted & killed his principal "murderer"

3*18*1918 - US: Dr. Ben Reitman begins his six-month prison sentence in Cleveland for his Jan. 1917 conviction for distributing birth control information. Just one of many visits to jail he endures over the years for practicing "free speech" in America

3*26*1918 - US: As anarchist draft resister Philip Grosser reports from Alcatraz Prison that he & other opponents of World War I are being tortured. Meanwhile Minneapolis is the scene of the first so-called "Slacker Raid," a dragnet of men without draft cards. During WWI, the raids will seize more than 40,000 non-registrants across the country ( On July 15th, 1919, the U.S. War Department announces it has classified more than 337,000 American men as "draft dodgers.")

4*12*1918 - Russia: Moscow headquarters of the anarchists surrounded & attacked by Bolshevik troops. For the past two days Cheka, the Bolshevik secret police has carried out raids on Moscow anarchist groups & making arrests. Under false pretenses & absurd pretexts, the quarters of all anarchist organizations & groups in Moscow are attacked & sacked by troops & cops. Very similar to what happens to anarchists, radical & labor activists in the US during this period.

4*16*1918 - US: Prince Hopkins arrested, indicted by federal grand jury in Los Angeles for violating the Espionage Act; released on $25,000 bail. On Aug. 30, he pleads guilty, fined $27,000.

5*16*1918 - US Congress passes Sedition Act against radicals, penalizing anyone judged to be hindering the war effort by making false statements, obstructing enlistment, or speaking against production of war materials, the American government, its constitution, or flag. Signed into law by Emperor Wilson on May 21

6*15*1918 - Jules Durand, sentenced to death in November 1910, is found innocent in a new trial, a victim of corrupt witnesses & vilification by the local press for a crime he did not commit.

6*27*1918 - US: Emma Goldman spends her birthday in agonizing pain, induced by strain from her prison work.

6*29*1918 - US: Because of Emma Goldman's anti-war activities, Federal agents raid the apartment of Emma Goldman's associate M. Eleanor Fitzgerald, seizing mailing lists & other relevant material. Goldman's associates, Carl Newlander & William Bales, are arrested for draft evasion following the raid.

8*23*1918 - Mollie Steimer arrested for distributing leaflets against the landing of American troops in Soviet Russia, along with several other members of her group.

9*14*1918 - US: Anarchist Dr. Ben Reitman is released from prison.

11*7*1918 - Germany: Revolt in shipyards in Kiel & Hamburg & the creation of Workers' Councils. In three days, Berlin follows suit, then all Germany, marking the beginning of the Sparticist Revolution, involving anarchists, socialists, communists & people in all walks of life.

11*7*1918 - "Red Bavaria" Revolution. Workers revolt. The Bavarian monarchy is overthrown & a Republic is declared by the Socialist Kurt Eisner, who becomes its president.

11*15*1918 - Gabriella Segata Antolini, a 19-year-old anarchist arrested & convicted for transporting dynamite in Chicago, is imprisoned in the Jefferson City, Mo., penitentiary; she & fellow prisoner Emma Goldman become good friends.

6*5*1919 - US: 67 anarchists are arrested & face deportation in the wake of a bomb explosion marking the beginning of the famous "Palmer raids."

6*14*1918 - Russia: Trotsky, chief of the Red Army, (aka The "Red Butcher" of Kronstadt) drafts an order banning the Makhnovist (anarchist) Congress, accusing them of opposing Soviet power in the Ukraine. Trotsky calls for the arrest of the delegates.

6*24*1919 - US: Following an attack on the house of Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Attorney General Palmer on June 2, 1919, the Italian anarchist Luigi Galleani & collaborators on the newspaper "Cronaca Sovversiva" are expelled from the country.

6*27*1919 - Emma Goldman celebrates her 50th birthday in prison. Especially touched that William Shatoff sends her a bouquet of flowers from Russia.

7*12*1919 - Germany: Erich Mühsam, on trial in Munich since July 7 for High Treason, is sentenced to 15 years in prison for his involvement in Bavarian Workers' Councils uprising.

8*28*1919 - Seattle mayor demands "hang or incarcerate all anarchists for life."

9*25*1919 - Russian Revolution: After brutal repression at the hands of the Bolsheviks, Cheka raids on anarchist groups & the banning of the Anarchist Congress by Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Trotsky in June, underground anarchists retaliate by bombing the Communist headquarters in Moscow.

9*27*1919 - US: Emma Goldman's term of imprisonment at Jefferson City penitentiary expires; released on bail with orders for deportation pending. Greeted in Jefferson City by mobs of reporters, friends, & niece Stella Ballantine, who accompanies her to Rochester. Stops in Chicago to visit Ben Reitman; meets his wife & child. Alexander Berkman's release from the Atlanta penitentiary follows in a few days, on Oct. 1.

10*8*1919 - US: General strike called to demand Tom Mooney's release & amnesty for all political prisoners.

10*16*1919 - Alexander Berkman & Emma Goldman spend a few days in the country to recuperate from harsh prison conditions before they begin work to oppose their deportations. Goldman is to appear before immigration authorities at Ellis Island on the 27th & 28th to appeal her deportation order. Goldman claims US citizenship from her marriage to Jacob A. Kersner. On the 31st a benefit theater performance in New York City raises $500 for Goldman & Berkman's deportation fight.

11*7*1919 - US: "Palmer's Reign of Terror" begins: 3,000 anarchists imprisoned without bail, Ellis Island in NY harbor. We Americans speak proudly of being a "Freedom-loving" country -- just don't try to practice it.

11*17*1919 - US: Violent raids of the homes of hundreds of "suspected radicals" take place in NY City.

11*25*1919 - US: Amid a strike for union recognition by 395,000 steelworkers (ultimately unsuccessful), approximately 250 "anarchists," "communists," & "labor agitators" were deported to Russia yesterday, marking the onset of the so-called "Red Scare."

12*1*1919 - US: Alexander Berkman, Emma Goldman & other anarchists & radicals are forced to leave the "Land of the Free", deported to Russia.

12*5*1919 - Representative Isaac Siegel, after a trip to Ellis Island yesterday, declares he has discovered how anarchists are made.


9*1*1920 - Italy: Between the 1st & 4th of September metal workers occupy factories throughout the Italian peninsula

4*16*1920 - US: In the Sacco & Vanzetti case, Ferruccio Coacci, an Italian anarchist who was to be in East Boston to be deported the day before, tells Bureau of Immigration Inspector O. L. Root that he did not report as scheduled because his wife was sick and he needed a few days to take care of her.

4*20*1920 - US: In the Sacco & Vanzetti case, Stewart goes to Coacci’s former home and talks to Mario Buda. Buda claims he is a salesman and that his car is being repaired at the Elm Square Garage. April 22, 1920 Stewart talks to Simon Johnson, owner of the Elm Square Garage, and sets a trap for Buda by instructing Johnson to call him when anyone comes for the car.

9*11*1920 - US: The anarchists Sacco & Vanzetti indicted for South Braintree crimes.

9*16*1920 - US: Bomb explosion outside the J.P. Morgan Company on NY's Wall Street kills 30, injures over 100, & does $2 million worth of damage in the ensuing fire which destroyed Morgan's offices. Authorities blame "anarchists," many who subsequently flee to Russia.

9*20*1920 - Russian Expedition stops in Odessa; advancement of Polish troops prevents them from traveling further.

10*14*1920 - Italy: Demonstrations held in support of the Russian Revolution & to demand the release of the political prisoners. In Bologna, where the anarchist Errico Malatesta appears, police open fire on demonstrators, killing several.

10*21*1920 - Italy: About 25 delegates of the Unione Sindicale Italiana (USI, a syndicalist union 300,000 strong), meeting at Bologna, are all arrested in a body.

10*21*1920 - Emma Goldman postpones her return trip to Petrograd to attend John Reed's funeral in Moscow today.

11*26*1920 - Russia: Red Army led by "Snowball" (Trotsky's name in Orwell's Animal Farm) & Kamenov murders Makhnovist anarchist delegation under a flag of truce & attacks agrarian commune federation.

11*27*1920 - Leon Trotsky (aka "The Red Butcher") orders an attack on Makhno's headquarters. Yesterday Makhno's anarchist commanders were executed after being lured to a meeting with Trotsky under a flag of truce. The Cheka simultaneously arrests members of the Nabat Confederation in Kharkov & raids anarchist clubs & organizations throughout Russia.

2*8*1921 - The "Anarchist Prince," geographer Pete Kropotkin dies, Dmitrov, USSR.

2*8*1921 - Russia: Emma Goldman arrives in Dmitrov shortly after Kropotkin's death.

2*13*1921 - Russia: Peter Kropotkin's funeral held in Moscow — the last public anarchist gathering & the last non-state-sponsored mass assembly in Russia for 70 years, as Lenin, Trotsky & the Bolsheviks begin crackdown. On passing Butyrki jail, incarcerated political prisoners strike up an anarchist hymn to the dead.

2*13*1921 - Russia: Emma Goldman, among others, delivers a public remembrance at Kropotkin's funeral in Moscow.

Russia: Kronstadt Revolt. It is here Trotsky utters his famous line, "Shoot them down like partridges."

2*28*1921 - Kronstadt Revolt begins, in sympathy with the resistance in Petrograd & critical of Bolshevism. As opposed to the Bolshevik Party dictatorship they demand workers' rule.

3*4*1921 - Russia: During Krondstadt uprising (March 1-17) in support of striking Petrograd factory workers; sailors demand democratic election of Soviet representatives. Emma Goldman attends March 4 meeting of the Petrograd Soviet, which votes to accept Zinoviev's proposal to force the surrender of Krondstadt sailors upon penalty of death.

3*5*1921 - Russia: Emma Goldman, Alexander Berkman, & several others send a letter of protest to Zinoviev, proposing a commission to settle the dispute with the Krondstadt sailors peacefully; no response received. In two days Leon Trotsky orders the artillery bombardment of Krondstadt, counter-revolutionary vs. revolutionaries.

3*7*1921 - Russia: As Trotsky orders the artillery bombardment of Krondstadt, Emma Goldman & Alexander Berkman, feeling that their last tie to the Bolsheviks has been broken, decide to leave Russia & alert the world to what they have witnessed. Berkman writes The Bolshevik Myth & help Emma with her book, My Disillusionment in Russia (1923).

3*18*1921 - Russia: Kronstadt fell yesterday. Thousands of sailors & workers lie dead in the streets.

5*4*1922 - US: In the Sacco & Vanzetti case, The Gould and Pelser motions are made. The Gould motion is based on affidavit by Gould, an eyewitness, stating that during the shootout a man who did not look like Sacco or Vanzetti fired at him from the car.

11*21*1922 - Ricardo Flores Magón, Mexican anarchist, author, dies at Leavenworth Penitentiary in Kansas, USA. Possibly murdered by prison guards. His remains were returned to Mexico, where they rest at the Rotunda of Illustrious Men in Mexico City & he has a city named after him.

12*18*1922 - Italy: In Turin, the fascists attack the "Chambre du Travail", set fire to the Circle of the Railwaymen, the Circle Karl Marx & the seat of Ordine Nuova.

12*22*1922 - Germany: Founding of the anarcho-syndicalist International Workers Association (AIT or IWA), Berlin, on the initiative of Rudolf Rocker.

1*23*1923 - France: The young individualist Germaine Berton attempts to kill Leon Daudet, the extreme rightwing propagandist of l'Action Française. A solidarity campaign by "Libertaire" rallied Severine (Caroline Remy), Louis Lecoin, & other anarchists & militants to her defense; she was acquitted.

2*5*1923 - Italy: Mass arrests of socialists, anarchists & communists.

2*14*1923 - US: American-Italian anarchist Nicola Sacco goes on prison hunger strike.

2*27*1923 - US: Formation in New York of the Mohegan Colony Association, based on anarchist principles.

3*10*1923 - Spain: Salvador Segui Rubinat, "El noi del sucre", assassinated with another trade unionist, Francesc Comes (murders financed by the governor of Catalonia). Born in 1890, Salvador Segui was an anarcho-syndicalist in the very active & popular CNT in Catalonia. Fundacion Salvador Segui now exist in Barcelona, Valencia & Madrid.

3*26*1923 - Bulgaria: In Yambol, during an anarchist protest against the governments decision to disarm the people, the army shoots into the crowd, wounding the speaker Atanas Stoitchev & massacre others. About 30 are murdered here, including others executed at the Yambol barracks tomorrow.

4*24*1923 - Bulgaria: In Sliven, the anarchists Nicolai Dragnev, the brothers Panayot & Ilia Kratounkov are shot by soldiers under the pretext of "attempting to escape". They are the final victims of the tragedy of Yambol, of March 26, when the army opened fire into a crowd attending an anarchist meeting, leaving 30 dead. Nicolai Dragnev was an important figure in the Bulgarian anarchist movement, a propagandist & esteemed popular speaker. As it happened, he was not at the meeting of March 26, & so failed to hide during the repression following the massacre. That failure cost him his life.

6*16*1923 - Argentina: In Buenos-Aires the anarchist Kurt Gustav Wilckens is shot in his cell by a prison guard, a rightwing fanatic. He dies tomorrow & despite government attempts to cover up the crime, a nation-wide General Strike will be called in protest.

6*18*1923 - Argentina: In Buenos-Aires the anarchist Kurt Gustav Wilckens is shot in his cell by a prison guard, a rightwing fanatic. He dies tomorrow & despite government attempts to cover up the crime, a nation-wide General Strike will be called in protest.

7*21*1923 - Prince Caetani was naturally called upon to make a speech. He made one bitterly denouncing the opponents of Fascismo among the American Italians, & argued "a certain Italian paper in New York ought to be suppressed."

8*10*1923 - US: Carlo Tresca, Italian-American anarchist, suddenly arrested. The charge was that he had printed an article, three months before, attacking the Italian monarchy & the Fascists. No such crime, of course, is known to American law, but Tresca was nevertheless arrested.

1*3*1925 - Italy: Mussolini puts an end to the parliamentary system & issues a decree ordering the dissolution of the USI (Unione Sindacala Italiana) anarcho-syndicalist union.

11*9*1925 - Argentina: Perez Millan (who killed the anarchist Kurt Gustav Wilckens in his prison cell), is killed in an asylum in Buenos Aires. Boris Vladimirovitch, a doctor & biologist doing time for an "expropriation", feigned madness so as to be transferred to Millan's asylum. Vladimirovitch was unable to get close enough (Millan was "protected"), so another internee killed him.

5*12*1926 - US: Massachusetts Supreme Court upholds the death sentences of "those anarchist bastards" Sacco & Vanzetti & denies their motion for a new trial.

5*25*1926 - France: Simon Petliura (Petlyura) assassinated in Paris by Samuel Schwartzbard, a young Jewish anarchist poet & watchmaker, to avenge pogroms against Jews (directed by Petliura, a rightwing nationalist & former Hetman of Ukrainian armies) & the murder of his own family members. Schwartzbard was set free by a sympathetic jury.

5*26*1926 - US: A motion is filed for a new trial Sacco & Vanzetti case based upon Medeiros’ confession & information about the Morelli gang, an Italian gang that robbed freight cars in Providence, R.I. & New Bedford, Mass.

5*28*1926 - Portugal: A military coup today forces Portuguese anarchists to move their planned congress & relocate it to Valencia, Spain, where it proceeds surreptitiously on 25 July 1927.

10*23*1926 - US: In the Sacco & Vanzetti case, Judge Thayer denies the Medeiros motion, presented before him on Sept 13-17. Jan. 27-28, 1927 Appeal from the denial of Medeiros motion is argued before the Supreme Judicial Court, but on April 7, 1927 the denial of the Medeiros motion is affirmed.

10*31*1926 - Italy: Mussolini (a former anarchist-syndicalist) escapes an assassination attempt by the 15-year-old anarchist Anteo Zamboni (son of anarchist Mammolo Zamboni). Lynched by the black-shirted fascistes. His parents were then sentenced to 30-year terms of imprisonment.

11*8*1926 - Italy: Dictator Mussolini issues the laws of exceptions. It sets up special tribunals for the "defense" of the state, allowing the arrests & imprisonment of many anarchists without trials.

2*22*1927 - NESTER MAKHNO and PIOTR ARSHINOV with other exiled Russian and Ukrainian anarchists in Paris, launched the excellent bimonthly Dielo Trouda in 1925. It was an anarchist communist theoretical review of a high quality. Years before, when they had both been imprisoned in the Butirky prison in Moscow, they had hatched the idea of such a review. Now it was to be put into practice. Makhno wrote an article for nearly every issue during the course of three years. In 1926 the group was joined by IDA METT (author of the expose of Bolshevism, "The Kronstadt Commune"), who had recently fled from Russia. That year also saw the publication of the 'Organisational Platform'.

4*7*1927 - US: In the Sacco & Vanzetti case, The denial of the Medeiros motion is affirmed.

6*10*1927 - Italy: The trial (June 8-10) of the anarchist Gino Lucetti concludes. He attempted to assassinate Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Mussolini, September 11, 1926. He is sentenced to 30 years in prison; two others receive 12 years.

7*25*1927 - Spain: Portuguese anarchist conference, relocated from Portugal, meets surreptitiously today & tomorrow, in Valencia.

7*28*1927 - US: In the Sacco & Vanzetti case, after being interviewed for several hours by Governor Fuller, Vanzetti writes a letter to him providing more complete answers to the Governor's questions & asking him to stop the scheduled executions. Fuller announces his refusal to intervene on Aug. 3rd.

8*3*1927 - US: In the Sacco & Vanzetti case, Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Gov. Fuller announces he will not intervene to stop the scheduled executions.

8*27*1927 - Paris: Thousands turn out in violent protests over deaths of Sacco & Vanzetti.

8*28*1927 - US: Sacco-Vanzetti funeral from North End to Forest Hills Cemetery. The anarchists are cremated. In September all Hollywood newsreels on Sacco & Vanzetti are ordered destroyed by Will Hayes, movie czar.

12*25*1927 - Argentina: In Buenos Aires, the National City Bank is bombed, killing two & wounding 23 American & Argentinean customers: it is the work of anarchist (Giovanni & the brothers Scarfo) proponents of violent action.

1*29*1928 - Family members visit Canada from the US to see Emma Goldman before she departs for France; a farewell banquet is held in her honor today. As she anticipates writing her autobiography, Goldman asks a wider circle of friends to loan her her past correspondence to refresh her memory.

3*5*1928 - France: During March-May, in Paris, Emma Goldman is reunited with old friends & comrades, including Alex Berkman, Mollie Steimer, & Senya Fleshin.

5*3*1928 - Argentina: In Buenos Aires, to protest against the Italian dictatorship, the anarchist Severino Di Giovanni bombs the Italian consulate (which was being used to eliminate Italian antifascists in exiles). Nine killed, 34 wounded.

7*17*1928 - General Alvaro Obreg¢n president of Mexico, assassinated. Obregon was responsible for the crushing of Zapatistan autonomous initiatives ten years previously. His assassin is not an anarchist, but rather an activist Catholic.

6*1*1929 - Manchuria: The Korean anarchist general Kim Jwa-Jin is assassinated while doing repair work on a rice mill. The killer escaped but his handler was caught & executed.

6*27*1929 - Emma Goldman takes time out of a busy writing schedule to celebrate her 60th birthday with Alex Berkman & visiting American friends Ben & Ida Capes.

9*30*1929 - Publisher Alfred Knopf signs a book contract with Emma Goldman's representatives, lawyer Arthur Leonard Ross & Saxe Commins; she receives an advance of $7,000.


2*22*1930 - Italy: Camillo Berneri sentenced to six months in prison.

3*6*1930 - France (?): During this month Emma Goldman is presented with an expulsion order dating from March 1901. Red Emma is taken immediately to police headquarters. She demands & receives a stay of 10 days; lawyer Henri Torres ultimately succeeds in overturning the expulsion order.

3*6*1930 - US: 100,000 demonstrate for jobs in New York City. No Welfare Bums them. Welfare doesn't exist yet.

8*24*1930 - Indochina: Two killed in riots on third anniversary of Sacco & Vanzetti execution

11*8*1930 - France: Alexander Berkman, denied renewal of his visa once again, is given 15 days to leave the country; by mid-month he receives another three-month extension.

2*1*1931 - Severino Di Giovanni dies in a shoot-out with the police.

2*2*1931 - Argentinean anarchist Paulino Scarfo dies in a shoot out with police.

2*10*1931 - US: Karl Yoneda attends a demonstration in Los Angeles, where the Red Squad severely beat him & threw him into a cell.

3*27*1931 - Uruguay: Arrest of Miguel Arcangel Roscigna, anarchist Argentinean expropriator who, after being a wrought iron craftsman, went from anarcho-syndicalism to violent action. Initiated by Durruti in bank robberies to finance propaganda & to help prisoners escape.

4*1*1931 - February-April Fall of the monarchy in Spain. Many anarchists, including some of Goldman's closest associates, are enthusiastic about the prospects for anarchism there, while Goldman remains skeptical. May Goldman learns that, despite the dreadful economic situation, Knopf intends to publish Living My Life in two volumes at what she considers an exorbitant price.

4*14*1931 - Spain: A Republic is proclaimed. Alfonso XIII crosses paths on his way out of Spain with hundreds of returning exiles, among them the anarchists Buenaventura Durruti & Francisco Ascaso.

5*21*1931 - Italy: In Rome, 32-year-old anarchist Michele Schirru is executed (shot) by a fascist firing squad. Schirru had emigrated to the US. A committed antifascist, he then returned to Italy, where he was arrested, tried & found guilty by a "special tribunal" of one notorious thug, of wanting to make an attempt on Mussolini life. No judge, no jury, no witnesses & no lawyers were allowed. Schirru was shot 8 1/2 hours after sentencing.

6*28*1931 - Alexander Berkman is presented with another expulsion order, the third in 15 months; he rushes to Paris to try to get an extension of his papers.

12*31*1931 - US: John Haynes Holmes lectures on Emma Goldman's Living My Life to an overflow audience at Temple Emanu-El in New York City.

1*1*1932 - US: "The Nation" magazine includes anarchist feminist Emma Goldman's Living My Life among its list of most notable books of 1931.

1*18*1932 - Spain: Libertarian Communism is proclaimed in the Catalonia mine fields of High Llobregat, in Berga, Cardona, Fijols, Sallent, & Suria.

1*19*1932 - Spain: Armed miners' uprising in Barcelona region in response to anarchist uprisings in Catalonia. "Libertarian communism" declared, including the abolition of money & property, followed by general strikes & armed uprisings throughout Spain over the next five days.

2*13*1932 - Spain: Anarcho-syndicalist CNT proclaims General Strike; insurrections follow.

2*16*1932 - Spain: The anarchists take the city Terrassa & proclaim libertarian communism. But their action is of short duration.

3*7*1932 - Germany: During this month, at its last regional Congress, held in Erfurt, the FAUD (Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands, anarchosyndicalist union) decides that, in the event of the Nazis taking power, its federal bureau in Berlin would be shut down & replaced by an underground directorate (based in Erfurt) & that there would have to be a general strike by way of reply. The latter decision proved impracticable: for one thing ' the FAUD all across Germany was decimated by a wave of arrests.

3*28*1932 - Madrid: Spanish Anarchists begin burning monasteries.

4*22*1932 - Germany: Emma Goldman arrives back in Berlin, where she learns that CBS has canceled her planned radio broadcast, fearing that it will be interpreted as an effort on her part to reenter the "Land of the Free". Can't have that.

9*12*1932 - US: Unemployed march on grocery stores & seize food, Toledo, Ohio

9*27*1932 - US: Judge Thayer’s house is bombed (presumably for his role in the Sacco & Vanzetti case).

11*11*1932 - Spain: Founding of F.I.J.L (Fédération des Jeunesses Ibérique Libertaire).

1*8*1933 - Spain: "Anarchist uprisings began in Barcelona, Madrid & Valencia. The insurrection was quickly beaten back; but three days later, on January 11, fighting unexpectedly broke out in the small Andalusian town of Casas Viejas. .in an exchange of shots at the barracks of the Civil Gaurds, two guards were mortally wounded... They then exacted a terrible vengeance on the town. The incident at Casas Viejas symbolized the fury and the martyrdom of the landless workers of Andalusia."

1*10*1933 - Spain: Rioting, bombings & gunfighting continue throughout the country as the Revolution spreads to the southern cities. Anarchists & Syndicalists besiege Barcelona.

1*12*1933 - Spain: The anarchist uprisings which began on 8 January are brutally suppressed. Their greatest successes were in Andalusia. Police & army buildings were attacked, & the anarcho-trade unionists seized public buildings & proclaimed Libertarian Communism there. In the small village of Casas Viejas, the government "Gardes d'assaut" demonstrate their cruelty by assassinating many of the the villagers, burning alive others gathered in a thatched cottage.

2*16*1933 - Germany: "Arbeiter-Echo" (Worker Echo), the unofficial organ of the German AnarchosyndikalistInnen published by the FAUD in Dresden, is banned by the Nazis.

5*9*1933 - Spain: Bombings & shooting mark a general strike.

5*16*1933 - The first blacklist of 'unacceptable' books is declared by German National Socialists of the Berlin Librarian Commission. Among the banned titles are B. Traven's 'The Carreta' & 'Government': "I wish to do my share so that authority figures & authority worship vanish".

8*12*1933 - Cuba: Machado's tyranny is brought down by a general strike fermented & maintained by anarchist elements of the Transport Union, first, & then by the Streetcar Worker's Union, & finally by the masses of people.

10*15*1933 - US: American liberal Mabel Carver Crouch, during this month, begins working furiously for Emma Goldman's readmission to the US, organizing a committee & soliciting the help of lawyers & others with contacts in the new administration in Washington, D.C.

11*17*1933 - Netherlands: Emma Goldman's lecture tour meets with mixed success: Goldman lectures in Hilversum & Amsterdam on "Living My Life", but her lecture in Rotterdam on dictatorship is prohibited. Under surveillance throughout the trip, she is arrested at Appeldorn on Nov. 23 & expelled from the country the following day.

12*13*1933 - Spain: From 8th-13th, some provinces (Andalusia, Aragon, Estremadure) experience uprisings, initiated by the anarchists. In several villages, they declare anarchist-communism, destroy property files, & abolish the currency. But these movements remain insulated & on December 10 the Republican government declares a State of Emergency & sends in the army. As in Casas Viejas, repression is severe: 87 dead, many arrests, tortures, & more than 700 imprisoned.

1*15*1934 - Canada: Emma Goldman gives a well-attended series of lectures, January 15-31, at Hygeia Hall in Toronto

5*28*1934 - Canada: Emma Goldman's recent lectures in Montreal drew audiences of 300-400: she spoke on Hitler & Nazism, "The Collapse of German Culture," & "Living My Life", as well as lecturing in Yiddish on May 21. Now back in Toronto, Goldman finds an apartment; after a disappointing lecture on the New Deal today she determines to curtail her public speaking & concentrate on writing.

6*27*1934 - Canada: Emma Goldman celebrates her 65th birthday in Toronto with a party attended by 40 friends

7*10*1934 - Erich Mühsam, German anarchist poet, murdered on the night of July 9/10, by the Nazis at the Orianenburg concentration camp

7*18*1934 - The American Mercury accepts Emma Goldman's article, "Communism: Bolshevist & Anarchist, A Comparison," which it publishes — to Emma's disgust — in a truncated form as "There is No Communism in Russia" in April 1935, violating the spirit of the original article.

7*24*1934 - Nestor Makhno, Ukrainian anarchist guerilla leader who fought reactionaries on the left & the right (both the Bolshevik Red Army & the rightwing White armies, dies, the evening of July 24-25, in exile in Paris, age 44, from tuberculosis.

8*10*1934 - US: Anarchist conference at Stelton, N.J., August 10-11, organized to discuss the creation of an English-language anarchist weekly; Emma Goldman contributes in writing her ideas on anarchists building alliances with other groups.

9*25*1934 - Emma Goldman lectures to a Jewish women's organization in Toronto, Canada, on "The New Approach to the Child."

10*5*1934 - Spain: 40,000 miners & iron workers strike, seizing towns around Gijon. 3,000 killed. The uprising in the mining districts of Asturias, Spain, October 5-18, is followed by severe repression; thousands of miners are executed, thousands more tortured, & thirty to forty thousand are imprisoned.

12*12*1934 - US: During this month Harper's publishes Emma Goldman's "Was My Life Worth Living?" & Roger Baldwin advises Goldman that in the current atmosphere of hostility toward alien radicals she is unlikely to be granted a US visa. Today her brother Herman dies.

1*17*1935 - Canada: After a disappointing turnout for her Jan. 17 lecture on moral censorship of current films Emma Goldman cancels further lectures.

3*4*1935 - Canada: Emma Goldman delivers two further lectures to Jewish groups--on "Crime & Punishment" on March 4 & birth control on March 15--& the last in her drama series conclude Goldman's lectures in Montreal; she returns to Toronto on March 17. 4*11*1935 - Canada: In her last month in this country Emma Goldman speaks in Hamilton, Ontario, under the auspices of the National Council of Jewish Women.

4*22*1935 - Canada: Emma Goldman returns to Montreal where her niece Stella Ballantine visits her on April 26.

5*2*1935 - Canada: Telegrams of tribute greet Emma Goldman at a farewell event hosted by Rabbi Stern of Montreal. On May 4-14 Goldman sails from Canada to Le Havre, France; she reaches Paris on May 15. On May 18 Goldman arrives back in St. Tropez in time to celebrate the anniversary of Berkman's release from prison in 1906; she finds him in better health than she expected.

10*11*1935 - Argentina: Founding of Fédération Anarcho-Communiste Argentine. (F.A.C.A).

11*21*1935 - England: In June of this year Emma Goldman began mobilizing anarchist writers & editors of the movement's press - for example, Rudolf Rocker, Max Nettlau, & Albert de Jong — to publish articles to mark Berkman's 65th birthday today.

1*16*1936 - Spain: Socialists / communists / anarchists form Unidad Popular.

1*31*1936 - Several delegates from the Portuguese Anarchist Federation & from exile attend FAI meeting on 31 January & 1 February 1936.

2*16*1936 - Spain: Election & formation of the Popular Front government against the fascist Franco. Anarchists, socialists, communists, republicans & labor groups for a republic.

3*7*1936 - Germany remilitarizes the Rhineland in direct contravention of the Treaty of Versailles.

3*25*1936 - Wales: Emma Goldman delivers three lectures (March 25-27) to miners in South Wales--at Mountain Ash, Ystradgynlais, & Aberdare--sponsored by the National Council of Labour Colleges. Her lectures on "Mussolini & Hitler" & on "The Two Communisms" are surprisingly well received, as it is the first time that the Labour Colleges had provided a hearing for anarchism & a critique of Soviet Russia.

5*2*1936 - The "Sterilizers of Bordeaux" trial in France. In April 1935 France, lacking specific laws against voluntary vasectomies, charged Dr. Norbert Bartosek, an anarchist Austrian, & others (among them Aristide Lapeyre & both Andrée & André Prévotel) with the "crime of castration" & "aggravated assault". Bartosek received three years in prison & the others 16 months.

5*27*1936 - Alexander Berkman, in declining health, is released from a hospital & returns to his domestic life with companion Emmy Eckstein & his old anarchist pal Emma Goldman in Nice

6*26*1936 - Death of Régis Meunier, French militant syndicalist, anarchist propagandist. Sentenced to seven years in a penal colony during the anti-anarchist hysteria, May 30, 1894 for "criminal conspiracy". He became friends with Clement Duval, whom he helped escape. Meunier was pardoned June 18, 1901.

6*28*1936 - In the early hours of the day, unable to continue enduring the physical pain of a longstanding ailment, Alexander Berkman shoots himself; the bullet lodges in his spinal column, paralysing him. Emma Goldman rushes to Nice to be at his side. He sinks into a coma in the afternoon & dies at 10pm.

6*30*1936 - Alexander Berkman is buried in Nice. Lifelong anarchist pal Emma Goldman is in attendance.

7*9*1936 - US: Alexander Berkman Memorial Meeting sponsored by the Jewish Anarchist Federation in NY City. 7*16*1936 - Spain: In Barcelona, the anarcho-trade unionists of the powerful C.N.T (Confederación Nacional del Trabajo) apply, without success, to Luis Companys, president of the "Generalitat" (self government of Catalonia), to organize a weapons distribution to the workers, to counter the imminent threat of a rightwing military coup d'etat.

7*17*1936 - Military uprising against Republican government led by fascist Francisco Franco, triggering the Spanish Revolution & Civil War. Barcelona workers of the largest & most powerful trade union, the anarchist C.N.T., seize 200 rifles & distribute them. Where the workers offer armed resistance, the fascists are defeated. Federico Arcos recalls:
"I woke up to the factory sirens. & it was as if the whole of Barcelona was pulsing to a single heartbeat, the sort of thing that only happens maybe once in a century¨ &, if I may say so, it has left its mark on my life & I can still feel that emotion."

7*19*1936 - Spain: The fascists, under Franco, attempt to overthrow the elected government in Spain, triggering the Spanish Civil War & Revolution. Today the rebellious military officers hold most of the garrisons in Barcelona. The workers of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT & socialist POUM attack the barracks, joined by soldiers, civil guards & policemen faithful to the republic.

7*20*1936 - Spain: In Barcelona, following the fascist uprising by Franco & the military against the Republic yesterday, the workers of the CNT & POUM counterattacked & today only Atarazanas barracks remains in fascist hands. During the assault the anarchist Francisco Ascaso is killed

7*21*1936 - Spain: Establishment in Catalonia of the Central Anti-Fascist Militias Committee (CAMC). No workers' organization takes power.

7*23*1936 - Spain: Two militia columns leave Barcelona to liberate Zaragoza, safeguarding & extending the establishment of anarchist communism in Aragon.

7*25*1936 - Spain: Camillo Berneri arrives in Catalonia with a cargo of rifles & ammunition.

8*19*1936 - Spain: Camillo Berneri, after organizing an Italian anarchist column within the Francisco Ascaso formation in the Pedralbes barracks (renamed "Bakunin"), with Angeloni & de Santillán (from the CNT-FAI), leaves Barcelona for the Aragonese front.

9*16*1936 - Spain: Based in Barcelona, the anarchist stronghold in Catalonia, from September 16-December 10, Emma Goldman helps write the English-language edition of the CNT-FAI's information bulletin, visits collectivized farms & factories, & travels to the Aragon front, Valencia, & Madrid. Works closely with anarchist Martin Gudell of the CNT-FAI's Foreign Propaganda Department & broadcasts two English-language radio addresses; Goldman hopes to conduct publicity from Barcelona, not wanting to leave Spain.

9*26*1936 - Spain: Three anarchists -- Doménech, Fábregas & Garcia Birlan -- join the Generalidad government in Catalonia.

10*2*1936 - Spain: The CAMC (Central Anti-Fascist Militias Committee, founded July 21, 1936 in Catalonia) is wound up.

10*17*1936 - Spain: In Perdiguera (Aragon), the International Group of the Durruti Column, composed of 250 anarchists, engage in a battle against the fascists.

10*18*1936 - Spain: Emma Goldman addresses a mass meeting of 16,000 people organized by the FAI (Iberian Anarchist Federation), youth in Barcelona. Also during the month she visits the Aragon front for two days where she is honored to meet Buenaventura Durruti, a leading FAI activist & militia commander. From the 20th to the 26th, in Valencia, with German exiles Anita & Hanns-Erich Kaminski, Goldman tours collectivized villages & farms.

11*4*1936 - Spain: Four leaders of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT, the largest union in the country, bag their principles during the Spanish Revolution & join the new Republican "Popular Front" government as Cabinet Ministers: Juan Garcia Oliver (Justice), Juan Peiro (Industry) Juan Lopez Sanchez (Trade), Federica Montseny (Health). Actions such as these undermine the Social Revolution, turning it into just another "Civil War".

11*4*1936 - Spain: Juan Peiro Belis appointed Minister of Industry in the Republican government under Caballero Largo.

11*5*1936 - Spain: Anarchist Buenaventura Durruti makes a radio broadcast from the Madrid front, in which he opposes the decree issued by the Generalidad militarizing the militias, & calls for greater commitment & sacrifice from the rearguard if the war is to be won.

11*6*1936 - Spain: The Republic's government (along with the four new anarcho-syndicalist ministers) flees Madrid for the safety of Valencia. The populace of Madrid's response is the cry of "Long live Madrid without government!"

11*7*1936 - Spain: Increasingly aware of her inability to speak Spanish hindering her work in Spain, Emma Goldman plans to shift to publicity work & fund raising in Great Britain or the United States, where she could make a greater contribution.

11*15*1936 - Spain: Today 1,800 militiamen from the best of Durruti's anarchist column enter into combat at University City (Madrid).

11*19*1936 - Spain: This afternoon, Buenaventura Durruti is mortally wounded under uncertain circumstances while helping to defend Madrid. Earlier this month he was persuaded by García Oliver & Federica Montseny to bring his anarchist column (composed of about 3,000 men) to the city to defend it against Franco's fascist army.

11*20*1936 - Spain: Buenaventura Durruti y Domingo, the famous & beloved Spanish anarchist, shot in the lung yesterday, dies at this morning at 6a.m.

11*30*1936 - Spain: Over 500,000 attend the funeral of the anarchist Buenaventura Durruti in Barcelona.

12*17*1936 - USSR: In Moscow, Pravda announces that in Catalonia (Spain), the "cleaning" out of Trotskyites & the anarcho-syndicalists has already started. Stalin's agents will carry out these purges:
"As for Catalonia, the purging of Trotskyist & anarcho-syndicalist elements has begun; this work will be carried out with the same energy with which it was done in the USSR."

12*23*1936 - Emma Goldman arrives in London & finds the propaganda bureau of the Generalitat in a shambles.

1*2*1937 - England: Emma Goldman begins organizing publicity campaign about the Spanish revolution, including planning mass meetings in London & the provinces, but is hampered by poor communication with & lack of urgency among key anarchist leaders in Barcelona.

1*18*1937 - England: Emma Goldman speaks on "The Spanish Revolution & the CNT-FAI" at a large meeting chaired by novelist Ethel Mannin in London.

2*5*1937 - Spain: Plenary assembly of the confederal & anarchist militias meeting in Valencia, February 5-8, to consider the militarization issue.

2*8*1937 - Spain: Malaga falls to Franco's forces.

2*13*1937 - Scotland: In Glasgow, Emma Goldman meets with local anarchists at the home of Frank Leech, secretary of the Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation.

2*14*1937 - Scotland: Emma Goldman speaks in Glasgow to an audience of 600 on "The Part of the CNT-FAI in the Spanish Revolution" in the afternoon; & in Paisley on "The CNT-FAI & Collectivisation" in the evening.

3*4*1937 - Spain: The newspaper "La Noche" carries an announcement introducing the aims, characteristics & membership conditions of the anarchist Friends of Durruti Group. Also, the Generalidad issues a decree winding up the Control Patrols. In La Batalla , Nin passes favorable & hopeful comment on an article by Balius carried in the March 2nd edition of La Noche.

3*11*1937 - notifies Emma Goldman (in England) of the establishment of a new committee composed of members from the CNT & the FAI to handle all foreign propaganda matters, in order to alleviate inefficiency caused by the personal & political rivalry between Augustin Souchy & Helmut Rudiger over propaganda

3*18*1937 - Spain: Battles in Guadalajara (March 8 through 18) end in victory for the Republican forces (the International Brigades & a division controlled by the anarchist Cipriano Mera) over the fascist nationalist camp composed of Italian, Moroccan troops & strongly armed & motorized Carlists attempting to seize Madrid.

3*21*1937 - Spain: The anarchist Iron Column meets in assembly to vote on militarization or disbandment: it agrees to militarization.

3*28*1937 - Spain: Late March-early April: A flyer bearing the endorsement of the anarchist Friends of Durruti Group is issued.

4*1*1937 - US: Abe Bluestein & Selma Cohen head to Spain to aid the anarchists.

4*14*1937 - Spain: "Friends of Durruti Group," (former anarchists in the Durruti Column) issues a Manifesto opposing commemoration of the anniversary of the Republic, arguing it is merely a pretext for reinforcing bourgeois institutions & the counterrevolution.

4*18*1937 - Spain: "Friends of Durruti Group," (former anarchists in the Durruti Column) hold their first public meeting at a theatre with about 1000 workers present & four speakers.

4*27*1937 - Spain: April 27 & 28, 1937: Armed conflict between anarchists & Generalidad forces in Bellver de Cerdaña. Antonio Martin, the anarchist mayor of Puigcerdá, is shot dead.

4*29*1937 - Spain: Late this month a poster from Friends of Durruti Group is pinned up on trees & walls throughout the city of Barcelona. In it, they set out their program: "All power to the working class. All economic power to the unions. Instead of the Generalidad, the Revolutionary Junta."

5*1*1937 - Spain: The only meetings in Barcelona on May Day were an indoor, small meeting by the 'Those of Yesterday & Those of Today' adhering to the Friends of Durruti Group, & an Anarchist nudist group meeting on the value of music. The Friends of Durruti meeting was Sunday 2 May.

5*2*1937 - Spain: The only meetings in Barcelona on May Day were an indoor, small meeting by the 'Those of Yesterday & Those of Today' adhering to the Friends of Durruti Group, & an Anarchist nudist group meeting on the value of music. The Friends of Durruti meeting was Sunday 2 May.

5*3*1937 - Spain: Republican government attacks workers; beginning of open resistance to both the Republican & Communist authorities by radical workers, anarchists, & others, opposing the regional government takeover of the worker-run telephone company in Barcelona. Fighting spread to all parts of the city, lasting for four days. Stalinists denounce Trotskyite P.O.U.M. as "Franco's Fifth Column" in preparation for its own liquidation (assassinations, etc) of independent radicals & anarchists (similar to purges in Russia as well).

5*4*1937 - Spain: (Tuesday): Gun-battles throughout the night in Barcelona. Many barricades & violent clashes throughout the city.

5*5*1937 - Barcelona: "May Days" erupt in Spain, as Communists attack anarchist strongholds

5*5*1937 - Spain: This evening, in Barcelona, the Italian anarchist theorist/activist Camillo Berneri & Francesco Barbieri are seized by the Communists, presumably on Moscow's orders. Taken from their homes, their bodies are found tomorrow, riddled with bullets. Camillo's eldest daughter, Marie-Louise Berneri, who fought on the front in Aragon, returned to Barcelona for his funeral.

5*5*1937 - Spain: (Wednesday) May 5, 1937: A handbill is distributed by the Friends of Durruti. Over the radio, the CNT disowns the Friends of Durruti Group. Fighting is now confined to the city center: the rest of the city being in the hands of the confederal Defense Committees.

5*7*1937 - Spain: Return to "normalization" in Barcelona. The Republican government had sent troops to take over the telephone exchange on May 3, pitting the anarchists & Poumists on one side against the Republican government & the Stalinist Communist Party on the other, in pitched street battles, resulting in 500 anarchists killed. Squads of Communist Party members took to the streets on May 6 to assassinate leading anarchists. Today, among those found murdered, was the Italian anarchist Camillo Berneri, an outspoken anti-communist.

5*7*1937 - Spain: (Friday): "La Batalla" reiterates its appeal, making it conditional upon withdrawal of the security forces & retention of weapons. Transport services are restored & a degree of normality returns. Assault Guards sent by the Valencia government reach Barcelona around 9:00 P.M. Companys surrenders control of public order. The Control Patrols place themselves at the disposal of the special delegate in charge of public order sent down by the Republican government.

5*8*1937 - Spain: (Saturday): Barricades are dismantled, except for the PSUC barricades, which persist into June. The Friends of Durruti distribute a manifesto reviewing the events of May. In that manifesto there is talk of "treachery" by the CNT leadership.

5*9*1937 - Spain: (Sunday): "Solidaridad Obrera" dismisses the manifesto issued yesterday by the Friends of Durruti as demagoguery and the Group's members as provocateurs. Their manifesto had spoken of "treachery" by the CNT leadership.

5*17*1937 - Spain: Negrin takes over from Largo Caballero as premier. The UGT Regional Committee for Catalonia demands that all POUM militants be expelled from its ranks & presses the CNT to mete out the same treatment to the Friends of Durruti.

5*20*1937 - Spain: Author & one-time used book seller George Orwell, sympathetic to the anarchists, & fighting for the Republic, is shot on the front lines. His Homage to Catalonia is based on his experiences during the Spanish Revolution.

5*22*1937 - Spain: A plenary session of the CNT's Local & Comarcal Federations hears a proposal that the Friends of Durruti be expelled. A session of the Sabadell city council agrees that councilor Bruno Lladó Roca (also the Generalidad's comarcal delegate for Economy) be stood down for having displayed a Friends of Durruti anarchist poster in his office.

5*23*1937 - England: Emma Goldman speaks on the Spanish revolution in Norwich at a well-attended meeting sponsored by the Norwich Freedom Group, the ILP, & the Labour League of Youth.

5*28*1937 - Spain: La Batalla is shut down as is the POUM's radio station. The Friends of Durruti's social premises in the Ramblas are shut down.

6*4*1937 - England: Emma Goldman & Fenner Brockway (a former pacifist & CO) speak on "Conditions in Spain" in London. Goldman formed the CNT-FAI London Committee in 1936 & was made representative of CNT-FAI Exterior Propaganda London bureau.

6*6*1937 - Spain: The Control Patrols are disbanded.

6*16*1937 - Spain: Members of the POUM Executive Committee & foreign activists are rounded up. The POUM is proscribed & its militants persecuted by the Stalinists & the Republic's police.

6*22*1937 - Spain: Between June 22-24, Andrés Nin is kidnapped & murdered by the Soviet secret police who are on a campaign to destroy Republican forces they cannot control.

6*23*1937 - Following the Communist suppression of the anarchists & the P.O.U.M., in which he served during the Spanish Civil War & Revolution, George Orwell flees Spain with his wife.

6*26*1937 - Spain: Showing solidarity with the POUM militants persecuted by the Stalinists & the Republic's police, the Bolshevik-Leninist Section calls for concerted action by the Section, the left of the POUM & the anarchist Friends of Durruti.

7*4*1937 - Portugal: The anarcho-syndicalist Emidio Santana attempts to kill Dictator Salazar. Emidio is sent to prison for 14 years.

8*8*1937 - In Paris, Emma Goldman is troubled by the violent opposition among her closest anarchist comrades to the CNT-FAI's unwillingness to confront the Communists' assault on its opponents on the Left & its undermining of the revolution. Obtains Spanish & French visas that will enable her to travel to Spain after all.

9*16*1937 - Spain: Emma Goldman visits until November 5, primarily in Barcelona.

11*5*1937 - Germany: Julius Nolden, a car plant worker from Duisburg is sentenced by the "The People's Court" in Berlin to a 10 year prison term for "preparing an act of high treason with aggravating circumstances."

1*4*1938 - Spain: During this month the pamphlet Towards a Fresh Revolution is drafted by Balius & published by the anarchist militant group Friends of Durruti.

2*20*1938 - Goldman speaks at a small meeting arranged by the ILP in Eastbourne at which Communists in the audience attack her.

3*9*1938 - Spain: Franco's forces, with overwhelming air superiority, launch a major assault on the Aragon front; the Republican forces, torn by internal disputes, collapse; & by Apr. 15 the Nationalists reach the coast, splitting Republican territory in two.

3*19*1938 - England: March 19-20, Emma Goldman speaks at a well-attended fund-raising meeting in Leicester for the SIA; also shows the Louis Frank film, "Fury over Spain."

4*10*1938 - England: In Liverpool, Emma Goldman speaks on Spain at two meetings today & tomorrow: on the first day to a 1,000 people at an ILP-sponsored event; on the second to a small gathering of the Workmen's Circle. Communists disrupt both meetings.

4*13*1938 - England: "Fascism Is Destroying European Civilisation" is the theme of a protest meeting in London sponsored by the CNT-FAI; Emma Goldman makes an appeal for money for arms--illegal under the terms of the Non-Intervention Pact.

4*23*1938 - England: As a delegate, Emma Goldman attends an all-day National Conference on Spain in London, which she is convinced is contrived by the Communist party.

4*29*193* - England: A literary & musical evening in London for the SIA (Solidarité internationale antifasciste) draws a small audience & is a financial flop; Ethel Mannin finds Emma Goldman's militant speech inappropriate to the occasion, organized to promote humanitarian ends.

5*2*1938 - At the beginning of the month, Emma Goldman is reading Orwell's Homage to Catalonia & writing "Trotsky Protests Too Much," a reply to two articles on the Kronstadt rebellion that appeared in the New York Trotskyist journal "New International". Also Herrera announces his intention to leave his position as secretary of the General Council of the SIA; his replacement is Lucia Sanchez Saornil, the Spanish poet & artist, & founder of "Mujeres Libres".

6*8*1938 - Emma Goldman attends Writers Against Fascism meeting organized by the Association of Writers for Intellectual Liberty; she describes it as "almost entirely C.P." (Communist Party).

7*30*1938 - At the anarchist Whiteway Colony in Gloucestershire, Emma Goldman examines the late Thomas H. Keell's papers on behalf of IISH, which hopes to acquire part of his collection.

8*9*1938 - Emma Goldman offers IISH (International Institute of Social History) her unpublished sketches & large collection of newspaper clippings as well as Alex Berkman's diary. She agrees to help IISH obtain other collections of personal papers from her circle of anarchist friends. Several hundred dollars from anarchists in New York & Chicago were sent to her to pay for travel expenses

9*15*1938 - Spain: Many leading anarchists express to Emma Goldman, who is here for the next 6 weeks, their strong opposition to the policies of the CNT's National Committee & its conciliation of the Negrin government. They are especially critical of Vázquez, who now acknowledges the destructive actions of the Communists but still wants them treated gently.

9*25*1938 - Spain: Emma Goldman, accompanied by Gudell & Herrera, visits the 28th division headed by Gregorio Jover & the 26th division headed by Ricardo Sanz at the battlefront.

11*7*1938 - Ethel Mannin, novelist & anarchist, successfully assumes Emma Goldman's role as SIA representative in London; raises significantly more financial support for the SIA than Goldman had. Goldman advises Gudell that the next propaganda campaign undertaken by the CNT-FAI should be aimed at the release of the political prisoners in Spain.

11*16*1938 - The Republican army of Catalonia, made up of anarchist & communist forces, is defeated after three months by pro-Franco forces, leaving tens of thousands of casualties & dead. The Republican forces had held for three months during the great battle on the front at the Ebre River.

12*22*1938 - Emma Goldman travels to Amsterdam to organize Alexander Berkman's & her papers at the International Institute of Social History.

1*4*1939 - George Orwell signs Breton/Rivera manifesto, "Towards a Free Revolutionary Art."

2*2*1939 - England: This month Emma Goldman is frantic with worry until she receives firm news of the whereabouts of anarchists who have escaped from Catalonia after the collapse of the resistance in Spain. Most find sanctuary in France but face harsh conditions in internment camps; others reach Paris without permits.

2*7*1939 - Emma Goldman's letter protesting Zenzl Mühsam's second disappearance in the Soviet Union appears in the Manchester Guardian.

2*24*1939 - Spain: Vázquez & Herrera's circular letter announces that the CNT-FAI will cease activities abroad & thanks the international community for its efforts on behalf of the Spanish anarchists.

3*5*1939 - Spain: The Negrín government is overthrown in an overnight coup (March 5-6) in Madrid; members of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT trade union in the south-central zone are involved in the coup & occupy posts in the new National Council of Defense.

3*9*1939 - Spain: In Madrid, the anarchist Cipriano Mera (1896-1975), heading the IV army corps, routs the communist troops which besieged the national Council of Defense.

3*26*1939 - France: Emma Goldman travels to Paris to meet refugee Spanish anarchists who are demoralized & fraught with misery & internal recriminations & suspicion.

4*1*1939 - April 1 Franco declares the Spanish civil war at an end.

6827*1939 - Canada: Emma Goldman's 70th birthday is marked in Toronto with a celebration that elicits cables from friends, comrades, & labor organizations around the world.

8*15*1939 - The fiftieth anniversary of Goldman's entry into anarchist ranks; she organizes a celebration for September to mark the occasion & to create a long-term Spanish Relief Fund.

9*19*1939 - Canada: Anarchist Emma Goldman delivers a lecture in Toronto on the Nazi-Soviet Pact to an audience of 800.

9*4*1939 - Canada: Under provisions of Canada's War Measures Act, three Italian immigrant anarchists, Arthur Bortolotti, Ruggero Benvenuti, Ernest Gava, & a Cuban, Marco Joachim, are arrested for possession of antifascist "subversive literature," including anarchist classics.

12*10*1939 - Canada: Emma Goldman spends the first two weeks of this month in Winnipeg & speaks five times, reaching 1,400 people in two weeks: once in Yiddish to a women's organization on Living My Life; to a large audience on the Nazi-Soviet Pact; a lecture on Hitler & Stalin; a talk to the IWW; & a lecture on "The Jew in Literature in England until the End of the 19th Century" to the Jewish Woman's Cultural Club.


1*12*1940 - Nation & the New Republic by Goldman.

4*1*1940 - Emma Goldman returns home to her Toronto apartment on April 1 after regaining consciousness but not the ability to speak.

5*14*1940 - Feminist anarchist Emma Goldman (1869-1940) dies while in Toronto, Canada raising money for anti-Franco forces in Spain. (See also Dec 21). Outspoken birth control advocate & champion of women's rights. Wrote My Disillusionment in Russia; Living My Life; Anarchism & Other Essays; The Place of the Individual in Society.

"If I can't dance I don't want to be part of your revolution."

5*31*1940 - A memorial meeting for Emma Goldman is held at New York's Town Hall, presided over by Leonard Abbott; films of Goldman in Spain, Canada, & of her funeral are shown; speakers include Norman Thomas, Rudolf Rocker, Roger Baldwin, Harry Kelly, Carlo Tresca, Eliot White, Rose Pesotta labor organizer & anarchist in the ILGWU, Martin Gudell, Dorothy Rogers, & Harry Weinberger.

9*19*1940 - US: A Journalist 'discovers' Jay Fox, the "sole surviving anarchist" farming at Home Colony, Washington.

3*7*1942 - US: IWW founder, anarchist labor organizer Lucy Parsons dies, Chicago, Illinois

6*21*1942 - Spain: Agustin Remiro Manero (1904-1942) killed during an attempted prison escape. Remiro, a Spanish anarchist, joined the Durruti column in July 1936, commanding a battalion of machine-guns.

1*11*1943 - US: Assassination of anarchist militant Carlo Tresca, New York City.

3*29*1943 - Spain: Nine members of the "Juventudes libertarias" (anarchist youths) an underground group opposing the fascist military takeover, are arrested & garroted at the "Modelo" prison. They are just a few of the tens of thousands who met, or will meet, a similar fate in the first years of the Franco dictatorship

8*21*1944 - France: Over 4,000 Spaniards take part in the Maquis uprising in Paris that begins today.

8*22*1944 - France: A group of 32 Spaniards & 4 Frenchmen tackle a German column (consisting of 1,300 men in 60 lorries, with 6 tanks & 2 self propelled guns), at La Madeiline. The Maquis blow up the road & rail bridges & position themselves on surrounding hills with machine guns. The battle rages from 3:00pm till noon tomorrow. Three Maquis were wounded, 110 Germans killed, 200 wounded & the rest surrendered. The German commander committed suicide!

8*25*1944 - French divisions march into Paris followed by the U.S. 4th Infantry Division. Nazi resistance was light & a quick surrender is negotiated, ignoring Hitler's orders to burn the city to the ground.

10*3*1944 - Spain: Spanish guerillas, previously fighting the Nazis in France, make their first incursions into Spain, striking in Navarre.

12*1*1944 - France: The anarchist paper "Libertaire," originally published by Sébastien Faure & Louise Michel, resumes publishing once again following the defeat of the Nazis.

1*4*1945 - Italy: In Raguse, Sicily, Maria Occhipinti, lies down in front of army trucks which come to find new young conscripts to incorporate into the new Italian army. Within minutes, a crowd surrounds the soldiers, forcing them to release their recruits, but kill a demonstrator & set off a major revolt.

3*10*1945 - Bulgaria: 90 members of the Bulgarian Anarchist Federation meet (or attempt to meet?) in an extraordinary session, seeking ways of resisting the new communist regime (which has closed all meeting places & prohibited the anarchist newspapers), are stopped by the communist militia & sent in concentration camps, where they are tortured & compelled to do forced labor.

4*27*1945 - England: Three anarchist editors jailed for nine months for "incitement to disaffection", London.

10*17*1945 - Juan Peron's popularity increased after he introduced liberal workplace policies to the point where he was considered a threat by the Junta. In early 1945 he was arrested & detained.

Public discontent was great and the main trade union federation, the Confederacion General de Trabajo (CGT), organised the first major public action for democracy on October 17, 1945. Its call for Juan Peron to be freed was supported by the Union Sindical Argentina (USA), but not the anarchist union, the Federacion Obrera Regional Argentina (FORA). Eva Peron played a large part in this demonstration.

12*2*1945 - France: First congress, of the post-war period, of the Fédération Anarchiste Française.

4*23*1946 - Korean Anarchist Congress concludes (April 20-23), in Anwui. Establishes the considerable influence of Peter Kropotkin's ideas in post-war Asia. Shin Chae-H0 (1880-1936), a Korean historian, was one of the precursors of anarchism in this country. Then, later, the brothers Li Jung-Kyu (1897-1983) & Li Eul Kyu (1894-1972) -- called the "Korean Kropotkin -- are the architects of this congress, along with another outstanding figure in modern Korean anarchism: Ha Ki Rak, who takes part, in 1987, in the congress of the Korean Anarchist Federation.

5*12*1946 - Founding Congress of the Anarchist Federation of Japan held in Tokyo.
12*19*1946 - US: Reenactment of Boston Tea Party in Boston. (Fashionably late?) Glorifies the destruction of property by vandals -- who inspire "Eugene anarchists" during WTO protests in Seattle 1999.

5*22*1947 - The manifesto "Freedom is a Vietnamese Word", published in the anarchist paper "Le Libertaire", signed by the surrealists Bonnefoy, Bousquet, Breton, Peret, Tanguy & 10 others, condemning the French imperialistic adventure in Indochina.

6*26*1948 - Spain: Raul Carbeillera, an Argentinian anarchist who led the action groups of the CNT against Franco's fascist state, being surrounded police & the Guardia Civil in Montjuich, kills himself. Carbeillera had several times slipped into Spain to fight with the Resistance ... but no more.

9*12*1948 - Antonio Ortiz, takes part with Primitivo Gomez & José Perez in an attempt to bomb (using a small private plane) the official platform where Franco is speechifying, in San Sebastien, Spain.

12*25*1948 - Bulgaria: The Bulgarian Communist Party declares as "outlaws" the anarchist founders of the FACB (Federation Bulgare Anarcho-Communist) & its newspaper "Rabotnitche Skamisal".

11*8*1949 - Italy: Group of anarchists attack the Spanish consulate with grenades in Gènes. Eugenio de Luchhi, Gaetano Busico, & Gaspare Mancuso arrested


2*24*1950 - Spain: Manuel Sabate Llopart is garrotted in Barcelona prison. An anarchist militant, he was accused of having secretly crossed the frontier to take part in the Resistance. One of the main reasons for his harsh sentence of death sentence is that he is the brother of Francisco Sabate, a famous & legendary member of the anarchist action groups.

3*11*1950 - Cuba: Beginning of the The Third National Libertarian Congress "to reorganize the libertarian labor movement & adopt concrete practical measures, enabling its militants to reorient themselves & to play a decisive part in the regeneration of the Cuban labor movement."

4*8*1950 - Spain: José Lluis Facerias, anti-fascist, anarchist guerilla, blows up the Lonja police station in Barcelona.

12*10*1950 - Italy: 42nd national Congress of the Italian Anarchist Federation held (8th-10th), Ancône.

6*5*1951 - Japan: The Japanese Anarchist Federation reconstituted this month, but the organisation which continued under this name was largely composed of those sympathetic to syndicalism.

7*19*1951 - Spain: In Barcelona, César Saborit Carrelero, anarchist guerilla & member of the action group of action of José Lluis Facieras, is killed by two police officers of the "Brigada politico-social".

8*14*1951 - Spain: José Luis Facerias is assassinated by the police in Barcelona.

11*14*1951 - Spain: 75 members of the CNT (anarcho-syndicalist union) are tried in Seville prison, accused of reorganizing their union & aiding guerrillas, particularly for their attempt to evacuate a group of guerrillas by sea in 1949. Two death sentences were handed down, against Antonio Nuñez & Dionisio Rueda, & the others are sentenced to terms ranging from eight to thirty years’ imprisonment, most of them over fifteen years.

6*30*1952 - Congress passes McCarran-Walter Immigration Act, to screen out "subversive" aliens & deport them, even if they have become US citizens. Follows up on the McCarran Act (Internal Security Act of 1950) - one of the more bucolic provisions being its authorization of concentration camps "for emergency situations."

7*5*1952 - Early in July 1952, John Cage performed a series of his sonatas & interludes in a large tent. Charlip had printed programs on tiny pieces of toilet paper & placed these programs on a table next to the entrance. Also on the table was a large bowl of tobacco. During the concert, the audience was invited to roll cigarettes with this tobacco, using their programs as cigarette papers...

12*25*1953 - France: Anarchist Federation & the Libertarian Communist Federation founded by the FAF (French Anarchist Federation).

3*25*1955 - US Customs confiscate 520 copies of Allen Ginsberg's Howl as they enter the US. It will then be published by City Lights publishers in San Francisco, leading to the arrest of anarchist/poet/publisher Lawrence Ferlinghetti. Customs also seized & destroyed another shipment of Ginsberg's poetry sent from Canada in the 60s.

10*13*1955 - American poet Allen Ginsberg organizes poetry reading at Six Gallery, SF (featuring also Michael McClure, Philip Lamantia, Gary Snyder, Philip Whalen, Kenneth Rexroth) & brings down the house by reading "Howl" publicly for the first time.

3825*1957 - US Customs again seizes Allen Ginsberg's book of poetry, Howl, this time the second printing published by City Lights Books in Frisco; US District Attorney decides not to pursue, & the printing is released. But in August Officer Friendlies from the Frisco Juvenile Dept raid City Lights Bookstore & charge the owner, anarchist & poet Larry Ferlinghetti with obscenity for selling copies of Howl.

8*30*1957 - Spain: José Luis Facerias is assassinated by the police in Barcelona. He was a veteran leader of the anarchist action groups, which had been operating since the end of the civil war. The ‘implacable fighter’ died riddled with bullets in an ambush laid by the police at the intersection of Urrutia and Verdun Streets.

3*12*1958 - Bulgaria: Manol Vassev (1898-1958), true name Yordan Sotirov, dies. Poisoned by prison guards one day before his scheduled release. A popular Bulgarian militant anarcho-trade unionist & a living symbol of resistance of both fascism & Bolshevism. He also spent several years in Stalinist concentration camps before his prison years.

5*28*1958 - US: Catholic anarchist Ammon Hennacy ends 40-day fast against U.S. nuclear weapons tests

7*25*1958 - England: In London, an International Anarchist Congress meets, July 25 until August1 8*1*1958 - England: In London, the International Anarchist Congress, held July 25, ends.

10*29*1958 - Boris Pasternak, under intense pressure from the Soviet government & press, wires the Swedish Royal Academy his "voluntary refusal" of the Nobel Prize for Literature. One of his crimes is to have written -- in his novel, Dr. Zhivago -- too sympathetically of the anarchists, & not kindly enough of the Bolsheviks

11*29*1959 - Kenneth Rexroth in his New York Times Book Review article on Mexico City Blues attacks Jack Kerouac & his writing.


1*4*1960 - Spain: Spanish anarchist guerilla Francisco Sabater (Sabate; El Quico) wounded as his group has a shoot-out with the Guardia Civil.

1*5*1960 - Spain: Anarchist guerilla Francisco Sabate dies after a shoot-out with fasciste garde civile. Wounded yesterday, he escaped & was killed today in San Celoni by a sometén (Catalan militia).

3*20*1960 - Anarchist-syndicalist workers' papers -- including Solidaridad Gastronomico -- forced to cease publishing.

5*26*1960 - The Italian political tendency of Bordiga whose arguments we combat here (IL Programma Communista, May 26, 1960) defends the conservative union tactic from the most revolutionary point of view. But many Trotskyist and anarchist groups (if not all) fall into the same error with an opportunist flavor. Even those who claim to be against the unions, like "Socialisme ou Barbarie," in fact fall into the same old routine practices.

3*13*1961 - US: Labor organizer Elizabeth Gurley Flynn is elected chair of the National Committee of the Communist Party, U.S.A. One-time IWW & anarchist in her youth.

3*4*1962 - Discovered today in the Family Planning Association archives: Guy Aldred, 4 Mar 1962 to John Peel (who was writing a history of FP) re: Sanger: 'Her work was very important but I believed that she liked to be patronised too much by the great & the rich. I had no time for that sort of thing.'

8*16*192 - Anarchist publications & public activities banned in Cuba.

3*9*1963 - In a "New Yorker" review of Oscar Wilde's letters W. H. Auden writes: "From the beginning Wilde performed his life & continued to do so even after fate had taken the plot out of his hands."

7*29*1963 - Spain: Franco regime wrongly executes the anarchists Francisco Granados & Joaquín Delgado in the Carabanchel prison, for crimes they did not commit.

2*19*1964 - On February 19, the five libertarians still imprisoned out of the twenty-one arrested in September 1963 began a hunger strike at Fresnes prison to draw attention to their situation. A few days later they were all released.

8*11*1964 - Spain: Stuart Christie & Carballo Blanco arrested in Madrid.

12*12*1964 - US: Solidarity Bookstore opens, Chicago, Illinois, distributing anarchist, surrealist, Wobbly & libertarian socialist literature to the nation for the next 10 years or so.

1*2*1965 - Italy: Bomb explodes in Naples at the Spanish Consulate. The attack is claimed by the Spanish anarchists of the CNT, FAI & FIJL which declare:

"As long as the Iberian people continue to be oppressed by the fascist dictatorship, dynamite will recall that the voice of freedom cannot be choked. Long live anarchy".

4*2*1965 - Ken Kesey busted for marijuana first time. We are sure it is the last time, given its addictive qualities -- or Kesey would be a heroin junkie or Mall Rat by now.

4*30*1965 - Rome: Spanish eclesiatic advisor to the Vatican, the prelate Marcos Ussia, is kidnapped by the anarchist group "May 1". The action was explained by Luis A. Edo, demanding the release of all political prisoners of Franco's jails. This action was mainly symbolic, designed to bring international attention to the plight of Spanish anarchists & other victims of the repression in fascist Spain. Ussia was released on May 11, in good health.

11*9*1965 - US: Roger Allen La Porte, Catholic Worker, immolates himself in front of UN.

11*27*1965 - Ken Kesey's first acid test takes place

2*24*1966 - US: Barry Bondhus dumps 10 pounds of his own s*** on draft files

6*13*1966 - Holland: Provo riots in Amsterdam. (Pre-situ street activists, the Provos this month elect first representative to Amsterdam Municipal Council.)

10*6*1966 - First big free concert in Golden Gate Park Panhandle. Several thousand show up for the "Love Pageant" & those anarchist Diggers start handing out free food. Big Brother, Wildflower, The Dead & the Electric Chamber Orkustra entertained.

10*17*1966 - Anarchist collective, "The Diggers," holds its first free street feed in San Francisco.

10*19*1966 - US: Ken Kesey, novelist & anarchist, back from Mexico, arrested.

11*5*1966 - US: Walk for Love & Peace & Freedom: 10,000+ show up, including poets Allen Ginsberg, & Gary Snyder, Paul Krassner, & the Fugs (Tuli Kupferberg, Ed Sanders, et al). The "first hippie style demo in NYC".

11*29*1966 - US: In Frisco, Municipal Court Judge Elton C. Lawless (!) reluctantly drops charges against members of The Diggers. Their heinous act was staging a Halloween puppet show at Haight & Ashbury streets. Released from custody were the anarchists Emmett Grogan, Peter Berg, Brooks Bucher, Peter Minnault & Robert Morticello.

1814*1967 - US: Gathering of the Tribes for the First Human Be-In (first hippie "be-in") at Golden Gate Park in Frisco, California. Probably 20,000 come to play, though Emmett Grogan says as many as 300,000 in Ringolevio. Familiar names include Michael McClure, Gary Snyder, & Lenore Kandel. Sponsored by Haight Independent Proprietors (H.I.P.) & the Communication Co. Among the performers are The Grateful Dead & The Jefferson Airplane.

3*23*1967 - Bolivia: Che Guevara starts guerrilla warfare. Che's group experiences their first battle of the Bolivian campaign -- the successful ambush of troops at Ñacahuazú.

4*9*1967 - US: Digger Emmett Grogan arrives in NY (6 week trip, having left someplace about March 1).

7*2*1967 - US: Floyd Turner is convicted of flag desecration & sentenced to six months in jail & a $500 fine in Seattle, Wa.

10*21*1967 - US: Yippies, Diggers, anarchists & other high priests meet in Washington DC for "Exorcism of the Pentagon" to rid the world of the global evil spirit virus infecting all who work there. Psychedelic face paint & flowers stuck in barrels of guns scare the shit out of US goblins & results in 647 arrested.

1*1*1968 - US: Yippies founded & announces plans to conduct demonstrations the following summer at Democratic convention in Chicago. Whoever called these anarchists "yuppies" yesterday will be beheaded at midnight.

1*16*1968 - US: Youth International Party (Y.I.P.) founded -- Country Joe & Fish, Fugs (includes Tuli Kupferberg, "one of the leading Anarchist theorists of our time" & Ed Sanders, poet, editor, owner of the fabled Peace Eye Book Store), Allen Ginsberg, Arlo Guthrie, Abbie Hoffman, Paul Krassner, Phil Ochs, Jerry Rubin (25 artists, writers & revolutionaries). No anarchist Yuppies allowed; BleedMeister has been beheaded for certain licentious transgressions.

1*26*1968 - France: 40 members of the Nanterre University anarchist group march into the faculty hall with comical posters ridiculing the police. The porters attack the anarchists but are defeated. The authorities call in the police; one thousand students fight back & attend a protest meeting. The movement thus launched has grown ever since. The students are determined to get rid of the uniformed & plainclothes police haunting the faculties. Antecedent of May events in Paris-France.

3*22*1968 - France: Students occupy the school at Nanterre & the March 22nd Movement emerges — an organization with no hierarchy & no ideological program. Includes members of various groups & also unorganized students.

4*11*1968 - Germany: In Berlin, the attempted assassination of Rudi Dutschke, a well known student anarchist activist, unleashes solidarity demonstrations in his behalf in Paris, Rome, Vienna & London.

5*1*1968 - France: During the traditional May Day demonstrations fights break out around a black flag as Communists try to exclude the anarchists from the procession.

5*7*1968 - France: (Tuesday) Ten thousand students had taken possession of a vast circle round the Arc de Triomphe, their red & black flags massed on either side of the unknown soldier's tomb, singing the 'International'. The flics kept out of the way. General de Gaulle declared that he would not tolerate any further student violence.

The students declared that they were ready for a dialogue on three conditions: withdrawal of the police forces from the Latin Quarter; release & immediate amnesty for the imprisoned students; reopening the Sorbonne & Nanterre. Four hundred and thirty-four demonstrators are today arrested. The police also restore the anarchist Danny Cohn-Bendit's residence permit (but only for a short period).

5*10*1968 - Paris, France: During this night of the barricades, Léo Ferré creates his famous song " The Anarchists ". This verse translates to a certain extent the surprise of close observers of the rebirth of the black flag at the time of the demonstrations & the processions of May.

5*14*1968 - Paris '68: Sorbonne students occupy & open the University to the population, inviting "the workers to come & discuss with them the problems of the University". All demonstrators who were arrested have been released. Between May 13-30 similar events & demonstrations are inspired, bringing daily life in the modern industrial countries & authority itself into question -- in Madrid, Rome, Berlin, NY, & Czechoslovakia (during "Prague Spring").

5*14*1968 - France '68: Workplace occupations start. A significant aspect of the May Upheaval. By the end of this month over 10,000,000 workers are involved in occupations. In Nantes, the workmen of South-Aviation, begin the first occupations of factories.

5*15*1968 - The French Prime Minister appealed to the population to resist 'anarchy'. Occupation of the théâtre de l'Odéon.

5817*1968 - France: Today the Occupations Committee, including members of the Situationist International (SI) & the enragés from Nanterre University, sent the following telegram to the Communist Party of the USSR:



5*17*1968 - France: Several thousand students march for the second time in 24 hours from the Sorbonne to the Renault works in spite of the opposition of the trade unions which are afraid of revolutionary contamination.

5*21*1968 - : At a protest demonstration in Peking the group Sheng Wu Lian calls for the people to govern themselves directly, as in the Paris Commune. The Red Guards accuse them of being anarchists!

5*23*1968 - Paris Uprising '68: New confrontations with the Latin Quarter, between students & CRS with government attempts to shut down or muzzle radio stations.

5*30*1968 - France: Trains don't run, airports closed; millions of workers have barricaded themselves within their factories & offices; soccer players have occupied their stadiums; there is no mail & it is almost impossible to make a phone call; Universities are closed; France is in the middle of a massive General Strike! Leading politicians warn of a civil war/revolution.

10*15*1968 - England: Alan Barlow & Phil Carver arrested for participating in a "First of May Group" attack on Banco de Bilbao in Covent Garden. International Anarchist Conference at Carrara (Italy), Stuart Christie & Daniel Cohn-Bendit are chosen as British delegates.

1*7*1969 - US: Governor & FBI snitch Ronald Reagan asks California legislature to "drive criminal anarchists & latter-day Fascists off the campuses".

4*1*1969 - First collective anarchist pizza made as Morningtown Pizza & Subs opens in Seattle, Washington.

5*14*1969 - US: Police build fence around People's Park in Berkeley, California, tonight

10*6*1969 - US: Weathermen blow up statue commemorating police involved in the Haymarket bombings which resulted in the execution of innocent anarchists. It will be replaced & blown up again in 1970.

11*2*1969 - Italy: Two-day Congress of the F.A.I, in Carrare. Not surprisingly, differences develop between anarchists & situationists. What seems to have happened (see the account in the last part of Veritable Split in the International) is that some FAI members were enthused by the SI & were kicked out by the orthodox majority, who paranoically fantasized a situationist plot to undermine the FAI.

12*12*1969 - Bomb explodes, Banque Nationale d'Agriculture, Milan, Italy. 18 die, many injured.



1*8*1970 - US: Shortly after the publication of his book, The One-Man Revolution in America, Ammon Hennacy suffers a heart attack while picketing for Lance & Kelback, two convicted murderers scheduled to be executed.

5*22*1970 - England: Bomb discovered at the new Paddington police station in London: during the later trial, the prosecution claim that this is the first "Angry Brigade" action. Major Yallop (head of laboratories at Woolwich Arsenal) admits to forensic work on 1,100 bombings in England between 1968 & 1971. Busy days indeed.

5*22*1970 - England: Bomb at Scotland Yard computer room, Tintagel House, London; simultaneous attacks take place on BR, Rolls Royce & Rover offices in Paris. (Attributed to "Angry Brigade" ?)

7*30*1970 - England: Series of bombings, attributed to the anarchist Angry Brigade, occurs, between July 30 & December 1971. Bombings include Gordon Carr's (Minister of Employment) home (see Jan 12, 1971), the Department of Employment & the Miss World contest (Nov 20).

11*20*1970 - England: Women protesters disrupt the Miss World contest during live TV transmission. Flour bombs are hurled at Bob Hope. The BBC broadcast van parked outside Albert Hall is blown up. This is the first known link between anarchists & Situationists.

1*12*1971 - England: The home of Robert Carr MP is bombed after he introduces the Industrial Relations Bill, in an drive to crush trade unionism.

5*2*1971 - US: The last surviving member of the Pioneer Aid & Support Society, Irving Abrams, presents the deed to the Haymarket monument to the Illinois Labor History Society. Every year on the Sunday closest to May 4, & the anniversary of Black Friday, November 11th, labor organizations come to this monument to pay tribute to these anarchist heroes by stressing their labor activism & ignoring their anarchist ideas.

11*6*1971 - Internationalising the struggle: attacks in solidarity with the Stoke Newington 6 (soon to be 8) & imprisoned Italian anarchists occur at Lloyds Bank in Amsterdam, the Italian consulate in Basle & the British embassies in Rome & Barcelona.

12*4*1971 - Germany: Attack on Anarchist Black Cross extends to Germany, where Georg Von Rauch is shot dead by armed political police in West Berlin. Tommy Weisbecker will be killed in Augsburg (2 March, 1972.

12*18*1971 - England: Kate McLean, an "Anarchy Collective" member, is arrested & charged as a member of the "Stoke Newington Eight".

3*2*1972 - Germany: Attack on Anarchist Black Cross continues, where Tommy Weisbecker is killed in Augsburg; Georg Von Rauch was earlier shot dead by armed political police in West Berlin (4 December 1971).

5*17*1972 - Italy: Milan police chief Luigi Calabresi, in charge at the time police "suicided" the anarchist Giuseppe Pinelli on December 15, 1969, is assassinated. Three militants of extreme left, Adriano Sofri, Giorgio Pietrostefani & Ovidio Bompressi will get 22-year sentences.

6*16*1972 - German police capture Ulrike Meinhof, last member of Red Brigades.

12*6*1972 - England: The Stoke Newington Eight trial ends. It began May 30, 1972, the longest trial in British history. Four defendants are sentenced to ten years after a plea for clemency by the jury, & four are acquitted.

1*8*1972 - Uruguay: Tupamaro guerillas kidnap British ambassador Geoffrey Jackson; although the government refuses their demands to free 150 prisoners, they release him unharmed eight months later, Montevideo. At one point they try to work out a deal though the Anarchist Black Cross in London, with Albert Meltzer as negotiator.

9*17*1973 - Spain: Anarchist militants members of the MIL, Oriol Solé Sugranyes & José Luis Pons Llobet, are captured near the French border on after clashing with the "Guardia Civil".

5*3*1974 - France: Spanish banker Balthasar Suarez kidnapped by the "Groups of International Revolutionary Action" (GARI ) in Paris in an action aimed at securing the release of 100 political prisoners in Spain (under the Franco government's own laws).

7*24*1974 - Spain: In Barcelona, the anarchist militants & MIL members Oriol Solé Sugranyes & José Luis Pons Llobet (arrested near the French border on September 17, 1973 after run in with the "Guardia civil") are condemned respectively to 48 & 24 years of prison.

11*7*1974 - China: Huge wall poster, critical of the regime, is posted on Peking Road in Canton. Entitled "Concerning Socialist Democracy & Legal System: Dedicated to Chairman Mao & the fourth National People's Congress", it was written by a group of ex-Red Guards under the collective pseudonym of Li I-che. Articles on Chinese anarchism,

11*6*1975 - England: The Sex Pistols play their first show at St. Martin's School of Art in London

11*20*1975 - Fascist Dictator Francisco Franco (for 36 years) dies (∧ he's still dead!) He is replaced by another General --- General Rejoicing (!!).

3*8*1976 - France: Robert Touati, a French anarchist active in Centro Iberico around 1974, & Juan Durran Escriban, wanted in Spain for an attack on an armory, are both killed on the grounds of Toulouse University during the night of 8/9 March. Police claim they are members of GARI (Groups of International Revolutionary Action") & responsible for a series of anti-Franco actions in Southern France.

4*6*1976 - Spain: MIL member, & former Centro Iberico activist, Oriol Sole Sugranyes shot dead following an escape of Resistance prisoners (all ETA members but him) from a Segovia jail as he tries to cross the border into France.

10*18*1976 - France: Laureano Cerrada, veteran of the plot to kill Franco & Hitler together, murdered in Paris by a Spanish Nazi who is given asylum in Canada

11*26*1976 - Sex Pistols release their debut single "Anarchy In The UK"v

12*1*1976 - The Sex Pistols, following their first single, "Anarchy in the U.K.," appear on British TV's "Today Show," a replacement for Queen. Interviewer Bill Grundy, taunts them for their "nasty" reputation, provokes bass player Glenn Matlock to say "fuck" on the air. In the resulting uproar, they are banned from all but five cities of their first U.K. tour. By next month, no club or concert hall in Great Britain will book them, after he fucked up.

6*6*1977 - Spain: The anti-crats (or acratas) disrupt another meeting, as they do every weekend, in Madrid & all the major centers.

6*21*1977 - Italy: Red Army Faction terrorists shoot Professor Remo Cacciafest, dean of the Rome University Economic Department, in the legs during a lecture for teaching students to be part of an immoral society, Rome.

8*23*1977 - US: Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis proclaims "Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti Day" on the 50th anniversary of their death.

1*18*1978 - Ending of the last show of the Sex Pistols' U.S. tour, Johnny Rotten sneers at his Frisco audience,

"How does it feel to be swindled?"

The next morning he announces the group is history, blaming manager Malcolm McLaren for "sensationalizing" everything about the band. That afternoon Sid Vicious is taken unconscious off their London bound plane in New York & rushed to a hospital. He is treated for an overdose of barbiturates & alcohol.

1*30*1978 - Spain: In Barcelona 50 anarchists are arrested, accused of the dastardly crime of attempting to "reconstitute" the F.A.I" (Iberian Anarchist Federation). Franco is dead, but the old fears of a powerful revolutionary organization re-emerging persists.

5*24*1978 - England: Iris Mills & Ronan Bennett are arrested in Bayswater They, together with Vince Stevenson, Trevor Dawton, Dafydd Ladd & Stewart Carr are charged & become known as "Persons Unknown".

12*6*1978 - Sid Vicious, out on bail from Riker's Island Detention Center in New York after being charged with the murder of his girlfriend Nancy Spungen, smashes glass in the face of Patti Smith's brother Todd during an altercation at New York rock club Hurrah. Damn anarchists.

5*21*1979 - US: Frisco Bay Area agit-prop group called the Union of Concerned Commies (UCC) begins in early 1979 as a left-libertarian intervention into the anti-nuke movement, then at the height of its strength & militancy.

9*29*1979 - England: The Persons Unknown trial opens this month (I don't have exact date). Ladd jumps bail & does not surrender for three years, when he receives 9 years on other charges. Carr, an outsider to anarchism, pleads guilty to anything the police require & is sentenced to 9 years. All the others are acquitted. Carr's "confessions" are read out by the judge after the trial when they can no longer be challenged in open court & berates the jury as too sympathetic. (A MEMEBER OF THE JURY BECAME AN ANARCHIST! KEEP HOPE ALIVE!)


5*30*1980 - Switzerland: Beginning of the "movement of the discontented," youth rebellion in Zurich, spreading throughout the country, involving thousands - young & not so young -- in demonstrations & confrontations with police, demanding places where they would be free to meet & share counter-cultural experiences.

3*21*1981 - US: The useless & lazy anarchist band, The Layabouts takes form, Highland Park, Detroit, Spring, 1981, the Colorado House

4*10*1981 - England: Brixton Riots: Beginning of a weekend of rioting in the racially mixed section of London, known as Brixton. Young people set fire to buildings & cars, pelted cops with bricks, & looted stores. Roving gangs directly fought cops with bricks, iron bars & Molotovs.

7*7*1983 - Poland: Polish Jokester Jaruzelski declares:

"We are not prepared to deal with anarchists & counter-revolutionaries."

7*23*1983 - Poland: Martial law lifted. "Anarchy will not return," says the communist dictator.

10*28*1984 - Italy: Sicilian anarchist Pippo Scarso arrested in October of 1984 & imprisoned for 12 months for refusing to serve in the military.

2*7*1986 - Haiti: After huge popular protests, playboy dictator "Baby Doc" Duvalier flees the country, ending 35 years of U.S.-sponsored dictatorship. He was whisked to France on a US jet.

5*2*1986 - US: 38 anarchists gathered in Chicago to commemorate victims of the Haymarket Massacre arrested & charged with the high crime of “Mob Action”.

5*3*1986 - Australian Anarchist Centenary Celebration, 3 May, 1986

10*28*1989 - Police attack 10,000 pro-democracy demonstrators, Prague, Czechoslovakia.


6*11*1990 - Bulgaria: June 11-18, barricades & anarchists in the streets of Sofia against the election manipulations of the various political forces.

7*3*1990 - Bulgaria: Federation of Anarchistic Youth (F.A.M.) participate in "City of the Truth" against the communist president Petar Mladenov (July 3-Aug. 5).

10*30*1990 - Engineers digging a rail tunnel under the English Channel link up between England & France at a point forty meters beneath the seabed, & the island of Britain is connected with the European mainland for the first time since the Ice Age.

6*2*1991 - Bulgaria: Procession in Sofia to the monument of Christo Botev, the first Bulgarian anarchist & national hero, who perished in the struggle for liberation of Bulgaria from Turkish power in 1876

6*26*1991 - Bulgaria: The Anarchist Youth Federation (F.A.M.) pickets at Bulgarian DS (State Security) for the relaease of Radionov & Nuznetzov, two young Russian anarchists who were arrested in Moscow in Feb. 1991.

7*14*1991 - England: Nicolas Walter delivers talk on "Anarchism & Religion" at the South Place Ethical Society: "We may yet end with Neither God nor master!"

10*27*1991 - Peru: Anarchist Andrés Villaverde arrested for sabotage. Sent to prison without trial & despite a total lack of proof to substantiate the charges.

2*10*1992 - Spain: During this month the TV film, A Matar Franco (To Kill Franco) is made in Madrid, a documentary based on news coverage, previously unshown film & current shooting, telling in full for the first time of the various, mostly unpublicised, attempts to kill Franco by the Spanish CNT, the Basque nationalist ETA & various international anarchists (Spanish, Mexican, Belgian. French, Italian & British).

10*2*1992 - US: Bloomington, Indiana, Midwest anarchist gathering.

10*8*1992 - Thousands of people in the eastern U.S. witness a bright fireball & hear a sonic boom. A 26-pound meteorite had fallen in Peekskill, NY, & struck a 1980 Chevy Malibu sitting in its driveway. It penetrated all the way through the trunk of the car, barely missing the gas tank.

12*26*1992 - Turkey: A group of Turkish anarchists begin publishing "Ates Hirsizi" (Fire Thief) in Istanbul, with articles mainly in Turkish, with a few in English & Kurdish.

4*8*1993 - Germany: "Libertarian Days" April 8-12th, held for the second time at the University of Frankfort, including the "Libertarian Book Fair".

11*28*1993 - France: La Société Octave Mirbeau founded, to contribute to the knowledge of the life, the battles & the works of the great French novelist, journalist & anarchist militant.

1*1*1994 - Mexico City: EZLN insurgency begins, same day as the Chiapas uprising in 1929. Rising of the Indians of Chiapas to the cry of "¡Ya Basta!" (Enough!). They refuse the world politico-economic demands, imposed by the US & its neoliberalism insolates (so-called "free market" racketeers.) While the movement is not specifically anarchist, it remains the a most beautiful example of resistance at the end of this century. Indians of Chiapas, & guerrilla zapatiste (E.Z.L.N) continue to resist despite the brutal occupation & suppression by 70,000 Mexican federales

7*7*1994 - Czechoslovakia: 3rd International Anarcho-syndicalist East-West Conference held in Prague.

7*8*1994 - Brazil: From the 8th to the 17th the "Festival of Art & Culture Without Frontiers & Libertarian Education" held in Florianopolis. Lectures, exhibitions, performances, films & a workshop on computer networking bring together comrades from Portugal, Spain & Brazil. In addition, the second southern conference of anarchist groups & individuals was held.

7*15*1994 - Brazil: Anarcho-punks from the north & north-east hold a conference at the University of Ceara, 15 - 17th July. The meeting brought together individuals & groups from five separate states to discuss various themes

7*30*1994 - Brazil: The anarcha-feminist group in Sao Paulo (CAF) sponsors today's anti-homophobia event in Espaco Vadiagem.

10*21*1994 - ANARCHY IN THE UK 94 - London festival---TEN DAYS THAT SHOOK THE WORLD!

6*8*1995 - South Korea: President Kin Young Sam warns that a planned strike at the state-owned telephone company would be akin to "an attempt to overthrow the state."

11*13*1995 - Greece: Odisseas Kambouris, a 23 year old anarchist, is sentenced to 5 years imprisonment. He was charged with attacking the Communist Party (KKE) headquarters in Perissos, Athens, in June 1994. During the summer & autumn of 1994, Kambouris held a hunger strike demanding his freedom. Many anarchist demonstrations & other actions occurred during this time in solidarity.

11*14*1995 - Greece: The Polytechnic School uprising anniversary.

11*17*1995 - US: Anarchist picnic at Golden Gate Park, Frisco, just down the street from Bound Together Books, meadow near the Ghirardeli Rustic Shelter.

3*30*1996 - First annual Bay Area Anarchist Book Festival held.

4*10*1996 - Germany: this month during the Squatter's Movement, which comes under heavy government attack for the next two years, the front house at Rigaer Strasse 80 is evicted, as is the Alt Stralau, which had been squatted in early 1995.

5*9*1996 - Germany: German terrorist Ulrike Meinhof commits suicide in jail cell, Stuttgart. She was a member of the "Baader-Meinhof Gang," also known as the Red Army Faction, with Andreas Baader.

8*21*1996 - US: Active Resistance Counter-Convention begins in Chicago for 10 days -- before, during, & after the 1996 Democratic National Convention. The gathering seeks to unite individuals & collectives to create sustainable communities of resistance.

9*10*1996 - First weekly issue of the anarchist Eat the State! published in Seattle, Washington. Wins accolades from "Seattle Weekly" readers. Go figure

9*28*1996 - England: The anarchist "Reclaim the Future" alliance threw its weight alongside sacked dockers & their trade union & socialist supporters. A massive anniversary demo triggered a 24 hour strike by tugme.

2*15*1997 - France: The anarchist bookshop in Lyon, "La plume noire," is set on fire by rightwing extremists. The books & furniture suffer heavy damage, but thanks to a show of solidarity, the bookseller reopens a few months later.

3*29*1997 - Second annual Bay Area Anarchist Book Fair held.

6*19*1997 - Italy: Cops raid anarchist centers & homes across the country. The Italian Anarchist Federation denounced the raids as a thinly veiled attempt to intimidate & criminalize the movement.

11*2*1997 - Congress of the IFA (International Anarchist Federations) congress concludes (October 30-November 2), in Lyon, VIème.

12*17*1997 - Five Poles, including members from the Polish Anarchist Federation (FA) kidnapped in Chechnya, while delivering medicine, food & other supplies from a Polish-Chechen friendship society. Their van was found 40 kilometers west of Grozny with its two front tires shot out. They were attacked by a gang of 15. Two Chechen bodyguards (friends of one of the hostages) shot two of the attackers.

3*14*1998 - US: Third Annual Bay Area Anarchist Book Fair. Artists & Speakers include Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Arther Evans, John Shirley, Pat Califia, & Will Rosco. Over 50 exhibitors from all over the United States sell radical & anti-authoritarian books, records, posters & tee-shirts.

5*23*1998 - US: Love & Rage Revolutionary Anarchist Federation dissolves itself in New York City. Love & Rage began as a continental anarchist newspaper at a conference in Chicago in 1989.

6*30*1998 - France: Paris, a group of 100 people manages to enter the buildings of the Constitutional Council. One of them seizes an original specimen of the constitution, tears it, declaring: "The dictatorship of capitalism is abolished. The workers declare anarchist-communism".

10*22*1998 - US: National Day of Protest to Stop Police Brutality, Repression, & the Criminalization of a Generation! Ampong the signatories is longtime Chicago anarchist protestor Joffre Stewart.

1*15*1999 - Greece: Demonstrations in nearly every city against the "2525/97 Act". Clashes broke out. In Athens, 14 are arrested.

1*19*1999 - Greece: Vasilis Evangelidis, teacher & anarchist, announces a hunger strike to protest his imprisonment & in solidarity with the student protest movement, occupations & demonstrations across the country.

1*21*1999 - Greece: Continuing demonstrations against "2525/97 Act" in many cities with clashes in many. Over 40 people arrested, including anarchists.

11*30*1999 - US: WTO (World Trade Organization) meets in Seattle, Washington amid massive ongoing protests, cab strikes. The Emperor wears no clothes.

11*30*1999 - US: In Morgantown, WV, 20 people from the Morgantown Anarchist Group, the West Virginia University branch of the Sierra Club, & others gathered to protest against the WTO.

12*2*1999 - WTO Day Three: World Trade Organization delegates meet as the core 50 block area of downtown Seattle is declared off-limits to protestors & most businesses in the area close.


4*15*2000 - US: 5th Annual Frisco Bay Area Anarchist Book Fair. Special guest: songster U. Utah Phillips.

5*3*2000 - Vote nobody campaign, Bristol, England 05/01 The Vote Nobody election campaign proved successful in the Bristol ward of Easton on May 3. An Autonomous Zone was declared after 145 people voted for Nobody and just 5 for the council. One staunch anarchist spoiled his ballot paper

5*6*2000 - Canada: Montreal's first-ever Anarchist Book & Freedom Fair. Includes AK Press, Black & Red Books, Marginal Distribution, as well as distributors from Toronto, Syracuse, Boston & elsewhere. Quebec-based booksellers & distributors include Édition et diffusion l'Aide-mutuelle (ŠDAM), La Sociale, Ecosociété, Planéte rebelle, le Groupe Emile-Henri, Ao!/Espaces de la Parole from Drummondville & the Alternative Bookshop, among others.

8*11*2000 - US: The North American Anarchist Conference, from August 11-17 2000, in Los Angeles, upstages Democratic Convention & the whacko Pat Buchanan-Ross Perot party of brotherly love. The August Collective put together a trans-continental gathering of anarchists in the days before the DNC

8*31*2000 - US: Blackout Books, New York's only anarchist bookstore since 1993 - ∧, sadly, now closes, due to the festering blight of gentrification afflicting the East Village.

9*2*2000 - US: Anarchist Futball Association (AFA) Tourament begins, goes until the 4th, in Detroit, Michigan, U$A.

9*26*2000 - Prague: About 20,000 of the world's bankers, economists & investors begin arriving in order to take part in the 55th Annual Meetings of the World Bank Group (WB) & the Board of Governers of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

11*29*2000 - US: In Southern California, faculty at Claremont Colleges are trying to get a union recognized. Subversity, a KUCI public affairs program, this afternoon talks with an organizer of the effort to organize faculty there for the IWW, the Industrial Workers of the World, known as the Wobblies.


4*19*2001 - Ethiopia: In a brutal attack by police, 39 people were killed & over 250 injured on the second day of violent clashes in the capital, Addis Ababa. Young demonstrators had come out in support of a student boycott of lectures. "Addis Ababa looked like a city under siege as mobs of youths clashed violently with police, creating anarchy all over the capital." (BBC News)

4*22*2001 - US: Washington, DC: Black Bloc Marches for Women's Reproductive Rights. It was a hot & sunny day today, but that didn't deter 50 anarchists from Baltimore & Washington, DC from donning their famous black-clad gear & joining the NOW Emergency March for Women's Reproductive Rights. They join over 4000 other supporters of abortion rights for several hours of speakers & music. The rally was followed by a feisty march past the Supreme Court & around the U.S. Capitol.

7*20*2001 - Italy: Black Block anarchist demo, part of the numerous attempts to breach the red zone in at the G8 Summit in Genoa.

8*31*2001 - US: Anarchist conference on building permanent autonomous zones, Louisville, Kentucky, today through Sept 3.

9*16*2001 - Pravda.RU:USA:More in detail 15:56 2001-09-29 ANARCHISTS TO RIOT ON 16TH STREET TODAY WILL MEET AT UNION STATION, HOPE TO CATCH POLICE UNAWARES Washington, DC -- Anarchist members of the Anti-Capitalist Convergence hope to catch DC Police unawares when they stage a riot on 16th Street between Union Station and Malcom X Park today, starting at 11 AM.

Organizers, who decided to march without a permit, separately from the communist-organized marchers, figured that while the bulk of the DC Police force, and the associated armed security forces of the city, were focused on Freedom Plaza, they would take the opportunity to seize several blocks between the two landmarks and launch a strike back at "capitalism".

4*30*2002 - Anarchists plan jubilee mayhem Date: Sun, 24 Mar 2002 16:26:00 -0800 From: radtimes To: (Recipient list suppressed) Anarchists plan jubilee mayhem Protest groups join forces to disrupt Queen's celebrations and bring May Day chaos to the capital Paul Harris and Burhan Wazir Sunday March 24, 2002 The Observer Anarchist groups are planning a series of disruptive actions across Britain this summer that will endanger the Queen's jubilee celebrations and cause running battles with police on May Day, The Observer can reveal. The Movement Against the Monarchy (Mam) is co-ordinating a summer-long campaign, which will include an attempt to take control of London's Millennium Bridge on 4 June while the Queen is attending a service in nearby St Paul's Cathedral. Activists plan to let off powerful fireworks to try to disrupt the ceremony, and to unfurl anti-monarchist banners. 'We can't wait for public apathy to destroy the monarchy; we have to take direct action,' said one organiser at a London meeting last week, attended by The Observer . Other protests are also planned across Britain as the Queen tours the country to attend events being held to mark 50 years of her reign. In the Suffolk town of Bury St Edmunds, where the Queen is scheduled to arrive on 17 July, Mam activists plan to launch fireworks near her motorcade. 'The point is to make as much noise as possible,' said Shaun Gratton, one organiser of the Wombles, a highly organised anarchist group involved in the planned demonstrations. In Sheffield, Mam activists are similarly planning to disrupt the Queen's visit. 'The idea is to repeat the sort of thing that happened in London last May Day if we can. That day, the anti-capitalists shut down the city. With the monarchy celebrations, we would ideally like to do that to every city in Britain. Basically, wherever she goes, she would be met by chaos,' said local organiser Bob Silby. Identical campaigns are being hatched in Arbroath in Scotland, Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, Durham, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Warwickshire and Manchester. Police sources have vowed that the protesters will not be allowed to disrupt the jubilee events. Special Branch officers are monitoring individuals and gathering information from internet sites and chatrooms used to discuss anarchist and anti-globalisation issues. Intelligence will be passed on to regional forces. 'We will stop anyone from causing trouble,' said one police source. At a safe house for the Wombles in north London, members of the group would not give their full names, but told The Observer of plans to disrupt jubilee events. 'Regardless of what the police might think they can do, a full-on and organised attack against the Queen's movements would throw the whole celebration into panic,' said one activist called Rachel. 'The Queen is as bad as any conglomerate I can think of. As bad as Nike or Starbucks. So we are working to make this a jubilee event for her to remember,' said Stuart. Many activists behind the anti-jubilee protests will also be involved in this year's May Day protests on 6 May, which will aim to bring the wealthiest and busiest areas of central London to a halt. Last year thousands of protesters brought Oxford Street to a standstill, costing local businesses millions of pounds. Police forcibly contained the demonstrators, earning them condemnation from human rights groups, but the tactic was successful in preventing large-scale rioting. This year May Day organisers plan to split their protest into many small groups in a bid to avoid being hemmed in by police. Unlike last year, details of meeting places and times will not be widely circulated, but instead will be decided at the last minute and passed by word of mouth to avoid police monitoring. The Observer has learned that the May Day protesters, expected to number at least 5,000, will be targeting the Mayfair area of the capital. While thousands of protesters will be intent on peaceful demonstrations, a hard core, thought to number several hundred, will target banks, fast-food chains and other multi-national firms with branches in the area. 'May Day is one of the main reasons why we exist as a movement. Nothing would stop us holding it,' said one Womble. Police have hacked into several May Day internet discussion groups, forcing one to close down, and are launching massive preparations to prevent any widespread violence. As last year, all police leave will be cancelled in the run-up to the protest, with around 5,000 officers on the streets of the capital. Police are set to use rapid-reaction mobile units to keep track of protesters' movements and respond quickly to any trouble. 'If people want to approach us about a peaceful protest, we can talk to them. But they never do when it comes to May Day,' a spokeswoman for the Metropolitan Police said.

5*18*2002 - From: "yanek" I ANARCHIST PRESS AND LITERATURE FAIR DATE: 18-19th May 2002 PLACE: Rozbrat squat, Poznan, Poland IDEA: We cordially invite publishers and readers from anarchist, ecologist and artzine circles. We hope the fair will become a level of exchange of critical thought, opinions and ideas on common publishing activities. We would like to talk about the future of the freedom publishing movement in Poland, co-operation with publishers from other countries, chances of development. The party beside the possibilities of buying and exchanging the publications will be varied by lectures, discussions, exhibitions and film projections. If you feel you are a part of the movement for individual freedom and free society, we wait for your proposals for taking active part in the fair. WE SECURE: exhibition place, place to sleep, friendly atmosphere, possibility of buying vegetarian food and drinks.